Effect of marine algae supplementation on the fatty acid profile of milk of dairy goats kept indoor and on pasture
More details
Hide details
Szent István University, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Animal Husbandry Sciences, Páter Károly 1, H-2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
Á. Bodnár   

Szent István University, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Animal Husbandry Sciences, Páter Károly 1, H-2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
Publication date: 2019-06-21
J. Anim. Feed Sci. 2019;28(2):169–176
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the Schizochytrium limacinum marine algae on the fatty acid profile of goat milk, with particular reference to n-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and rumenic acid. Forty dairy goats were randomly allocated to four groups: C – fed with 1500 g alfalfa hay and 600 g concentrate; CMA – received the same forages and concentrate supplemented with 15 g/head/day microalgae; P – kept on pasture with 600 g concentrate; PMA – kept on pasture with 600 g concentrate with microalgae inclusion (15 g/head/day). The C and CMA groups were housed indoors, while the goats from P and PMA groups were kept on a natural pasture. The experiment lasted 31 days, including the last 10 days of sampling period. Marine algae feeding had no negative effect on milk yield and milk composition. The microalgae inclusion considerably increased DHA concentration in milk in both marine algae groups (0.40% in CMA and 0.39% in PMA), and additionally the n-6/n-3 ratio was also more favourable in the microalgae supplemented groups (1.25 and 1.37 in CMA and PMA groups, respectively) as compared to the C and P groups respectively in which this ratio was 2.30 and 1.44 (P < 0.01). Also, marine algae supplementation increased the concentration of rumenic acid (0.89% and 1.07% in CMA and PMA groups, respectively) in milk in comparison to C (0.46%) and P (0.77%) groups. So, it can be concluded that diet supplemented with microalgae significantly increased the concentration of beneficial fatty acids in goat milk.
Białek A., Białek M., Lepionka T., Kaszperuk K., Banaszkiewicz T., Tokarz A., 2018a. The effect of pomegranate seed oil and grapeseed oil on cis-9, trans-11 CLA (rumenic acid), n-3 and n-6 fatty acids deposition in selected tissues of chickens. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 102, 962–976, https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12....
Białek M., Czauderna M., Białek A., 2018b. Partial replacement of rapeseed oil with fish oil, and dietary antioxidants supplementation affects concentrations of biohydrogenation products and conjugated fatty acids in rumen and selected lamb tissues. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 241, 63–74, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anif....
Bichi E., Hervás G., Toral P.G., Loor J.J., Frutos P., 2013. Milk fat depression induced by dietary marine algae in dairy ewes: Persistency of milk fatty acid composition and animal performance responses. J. Dairy Sci. 96, 524–532, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Boeckaert C., Vlaeminck B., Dijkstra J., Issa-ZachariaA., Van Nespen T., Van Straalen W., Fievez V., 2008. Effect of dietary starch or micro algae supplementation on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 91, 4714–4727, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Delgadillo Puga C., Castillo Domínguez R.M., Cuchillo Hilario M., Díaz Martínez M., Montaño Benavidez S., 2015. Radical scavenging activity and health and risk fatty acid indices of soft goats’ milk cheeses. Arch. Latinoam. Prod. Anim. 23, 21–26.
Directive 2010/63/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2010 on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes. Off. J. EU L 276, 33–79.
EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA), 2010. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol. EFSA J. 8, 1461, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa....
Franklin S.T., Martin K.R., Baer R.J., Schingoethe D.J., Hippen A.R., 1999. Dietary marine algae (Schizochytrium sp.) increases concentrations of conjugated linoleic, docosahexaenoic and transvaccenic acids in milk of dairy cows. J. Nutr. 129, 2048–2054, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/129....
Folch J.M., Lees M., Sloane-Stanley G.H., 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226, 495–509.
Gómez-Cortés P., Juárez M., de La Fuente M.A., 2018. Milk fatty acids and potential health benefits: An updated vision. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 81, 1–9, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs....
Hungarian Feed Codex. Volume 3, 2004. Laboratory methods and operations (in Hungarian). National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control. Budapest (Hungary).
Kuchtík J., Králíčková S., Zapletal D., Węglarzy K., Šustová K., Skrzyżala I., 2015. Changes in physico-chemical characteristics, somatic cell count and fatty acid profile of Brown Short-haired goat milk during lactation. Anim. Sci. Pap. Rep. 33, 71–83.
Kuhnt K., Kraft J., Moeckel P., Jahreis G., 2006. Trans-11–18: 1 is effectively δ9-desaturated compared with Trans-12–18: 1 in humans. Brit. J. Nutr. 95, 752–761, https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN200....
Li D., Bode O., Drummond H., Sinclair A.J., 2003. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids. In: F.D. Gunstone (Editor). Lipids for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals. Oily Press, Bridgwater (UK), pp. 225–262, https://doi.org/10.1533/978085....
Lock A.L., Kraft J., Rice B.H., Bauman D.E., 2009. Biosynthesis and biological activity of rumenic acid: a natural CLA isomer. In: F. Destaillats, J.-L. Sébédio, F. Dionisi, J.-M. Chardigny (Editors). Trans Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition. Oily Press, Bridgwater (UK), pp. 195–230, https://doi.org/10.1533/978085....
Luna P., Juárez M., de La Fuente M.A., 2007. Conjugated linoleic acid content and isomer distribution during ripening in three varieties of cheeses protected with designation of origin. Food Chem. 103, 1465–1472, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.food....
Moate P.J., Williams S.R.O., Hannah M.C., Eckard R.J., Auldist M.J., Ribaux B.E., Jacobs J.L., Wales W.J., 2013. Effects of feeding algal meal high in docosahexaenoic acid on feed intake, milk production, and methane emissions in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 96, 3177–3188, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Moran C.A., Morlacchini M., Fusconi G., 2017a. Enhancing the DHA content in milk from dairy cows by feeding ALL-G-RICH™. J. Appl. Anim. Nutr. 5, e11, https://doi.org/10.1017/jan.20....
Moran C.A., Morlacchini M., Keegan J.D., Fusconi G., 2017b. The effect of dietary supplementation with Aurantiochytrium limacinum on lactating dairy cows in terms of animal health, productivity and milk composition. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 1–15, https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12....
NRC (National Research Council), 2007. Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids. The National Academies Press. Washington, DC (USA), https://doi.org/10.17226/11654.
Or-Rashid M.M., Kramer J.K.G., Wood M.A., McBride B.W., 2008. Supplemental algal meal alters the ruminal trans-18:1 fatty acid and conjugated linoleic acid composition in cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 86, 187–196, https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.20....
Pajor F., Galló O., Steiber O., Tasi J., Póti P., 2009. The effect of grazing on the composition of conjugated linoleic isomers and other fatty acids of milk and cheese in goats. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 18, 429–439, https://doi.org/10.22358/jafs/....
Palmquist D.L., 2009. Omega-3 fatty acids in metabolism, health and nutrition and for modified animal product foods. Prof. Anim. Sci. 25, 207–249, https://doi.org/10.15232/S1080....
Papadopoulos G., Goulas C., Apostolaki E., Abril R., 2002. Effects of dietary supplements of algae, containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, on milk yield and the composition of milk products in dairy ewes. J. Dairy Sci. 69, 357–365, https://doi.org/10.1017/S00220....
Papamandjaris A.A., Macdougall D.E., Jones P.J.H., 1998. Medium chain fatty acid metabolism and energy expenditure: Obesity treatment implications. Life Sci. 62, 1203–1215, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-....
Park P.W., Goins R.E., 1994. In situ preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for analysis of fatty acid composition in foods. J. Food Sci. 59, 1262–1266, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365....
Póti P., Pajor F., Bodnár A., Penksza K., Köles P., 2015. Effect of micro-alga supplementation on goat and cow milk fatty acid composition. Chilean J. Agric. Res. 75, 259–263, https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-....
Ren L.-J., Ji X.-J., Huang H., Qu L., Feng Y., Tong Q.-Q., Ouyang P.-K., 2010. Development of a stepwise aeration control strategy for efficient docosahexaenoic acid production by Schizochytrium sp. Appl. Microbiol. Biotech. 87, 1649–1656, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253....
Reynolds C.K., Cannon V.L., Loerch S.C., 2006. Effects of forage source and supplementation with soybean and marine algal oil on milk fatty acid composition of ewes. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 131, 333–357, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anif....
Shingfield K.J., Bernard L., Leroux C., Chilliard Y., 2010. Role of trans fatty acids in the nutritional regulation of mammary lipogenesis in ruminants. Animal 4, 1140–1166, https://doi.org/10.1017/S17517....
Toral P.G., Hervás G., Gómez-Cortés P., Frutos P., Juárez M., de La Fuente M.A., 2010. Milk fatty acid profile and dairy sheep performance in response to diet supplementation with sunflower oil plus incremental levels of marine algae. J. Dairy Sci. 93, 1655–1667, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Toral P.G., Hervás G., Carreño D., Leskinen H., Belenguer A., Shingfield J.K., Frutos P., 2017. In vitro response to EPA, DPA, and DHA: Comparison of effects on ruminal fermentation and biohydrogenation of 18-carbon fatty acids in cows and ewes. J. Dairy Sci.100, 6187–6198, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Tsiplakou E., Mountzouris K.C., Zervas G., 2006. Concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in grazing sheep and goat milk fat. Livest. Sci. 103, 74–84, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livs....
Tsiplakou E., Abdullah M.A.M., Alexandros M., Chatzikonstantinou M., Skliros D., Sotirakoglou K., Flemetakis E., Labrou N.E., Zervas G., 2017. The effect of dietary Chlorella pyrenoidosa inclusion on goats milk chemical composition, fatty acids profile and enzymes activities related to oxidation. Livest. Sci.197, 106–111, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livs....
Zhang Z., Fulgoni V.L., Kris-Etherton P.M., Mitmesser S.H., 2018. Dietary intakes of EPA and DHA Omega-3 fatty acids among US childbearing-age and pregnant women: an analysis of NHANES 2001–2014. Nutrients 10, 416, https://doi.org/10.3390/nu1004....
Goats’ Feeding Supplementation with Acacia farnesiana Pods and Their Relationship with Milk Composition: Fatty Acids, Polyphenols, and Antioxidant Activity
Delgadillo-Puga, Cuchillo-Hilario, León-Ortiz, Ramírez-Rodríguez, Cabiddu, Navarro-Ocaña, Morales-Romero, Medina-Campos, Pedraza-Chaverri
Sheep and Goats Respond Differently to Feeding Strategies Directed to Improve the Fatty Acid Profile of Milk Fat
Anna Nudda, Antonello Cannas, Fabio Correddu, Alberto Atzori, Mondina Lunesu, Gianni Battacone, Giuseppe Pulina
In vitro ruminal fermentation and methane inhibitory effect of three species of microalgae
Ali Kiani, Christina Wolf, Katrin Giller, Lukas Eggerschwiler, Michael Kreuzer, Angela Schwarm, Filippo Miglior
Canadian Journal of Animal Science
The impact of the dietary supplementation level with Schizochytrium sp. on milk chemical composition and fatty acid profile, of both blood plasma and milk of goats
Mavrommatis Alexandros, Tsiplakou Eleni
Small Ruminant Research
Luisa Valente, Ana Cabrita, Margarida Maia, Inês Valente, Sofia Engrola, António Fonseca, David Ribeiro, Madalena Lordelo, Cátia Martins, e Falcão, Almeida de, João Freire
Performance, carcass traits, physicochemical properties and fatty acids composition of lamb's meat fed diets with marine microalgae meal (Schizochytrium sp.)
Roberta Valença, Américo Sobrinho, Thiago Borghi, Diego Meza, Nomaiací Andrade, Leonardo Silva, Leilson Bezerra
Livestock Science
Fatty acids of microalgae: diversity and applications
Yevhen Maltsev, Kateryna Maltseva
Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology
Effect of Marine Algae Supplementation on Somatic Cell Count, Prevalence of Udder Pathogens, and Fatty Acid Profile of Dairy Goats’ Milk
Ferenc Pajor, István Egerszegi, Ágnes Szűcs, Péter Póti, Ákos Bodnár
Dietary supplementation with a phytocomplex affects blood parameters and milk yield and quality in grazing goats
Vincenzo Mastellone, Valeria Morittu, Nadia Musco, Anna Spina, Andrea Malgeri, Maria Molinari, Biagio D’Aniello, Federico Infascelli, Raffaella Tudisco, Pietro Lombardi
Small Ruminant Research
Changes in the somatic cells counts and total bacterial counts in raw goat milk during lactation and their relationships to selected milk traits
Jan Kuchtík, Květoslava Šustová, Vladimír Sýkora, Libor Kalhotka, Leoš Pavlata, Leona Konečná
Italian Journal of Animal Science
Individual differences in responsiveness to diet-induced milk fat depression in dairy sheep and goats
Badia Della, Gonzalo Hervás, Pablo Toral, Pilar Frutos
Journal of Dairy Science
Dietary strategies to enrich milk with healthy fatty acids – a review
Ahmed Kholif, Olurotimi Olafadehan
Annals of Animal Science
Recent Insights Into Processing Approaches and Potential Health Benefits of Goat Milk and Its Products: A Review
Gulzar Nayik, Yash Jagdale, Sailee Gaikwad, Anupama Devkatte, Aamir Dar, Daniel Dezmirean, Otilia Bobis, Muhammad Ranjha, Mohammad Ansari, Hassan Hemeg, Saqer Alotaibi
Frontiers in Nutrition
Keçi sütü somatik hücre sayısı eşik değerlerinin diğer süt parametreleri ile karşılaştırılarak subklinik mastitisin tanısında kullanılabilirliği
Hakan TAVŞANLI, Nisanur EKTİK, Nevzat SAAT, Ziya İLHAN
Izmir Democracy University Health Sciences Journal
Effect of grazing on composition, fatty acid profile and nutritional indices of the goat milk and cheese
Á. Bodnár, I. Egerszegi, J. Kuchtik, K. Penksza, P. Póti, F. Pajor
Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences