SHORT COMMUNICATION
Nutritional value of three Blattodea species used as feed for animals
M. Kulma 1  
,   V. Plachý 2,   L. Kouřimská 2,   V. Vrabec 1,   T. Bubová 1,   A. Adámková 3,   B. Hučko 2
 
More details
Hide details
1
Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Department of Zoology and Fisheries, Kamýcká 129, Praha – Suchdol, 165 00, Czech Republic
2
Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Department of Microbiology, Nutrition and Dietetics, Kamýcká 129, Praha – Suchdol, 165 00, Czech Republic
3
Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Department of Quality of Agricultural Products, Kamýcká 129, Praha – Suchdol, 165 00, Czech Republic
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
M. Kulma   

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Department of Zoology and Fisheries, Kamýcká 129, Praha – Suchdol, 165 00, Czech Republic
Publication date: 2016-12-19
 
J. Anim. Feed Sci. 2016;25(4):354–360
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Nutrient contents of subadult and adult Blaptica dubia, Blaberus discoidalis and Blatta lateralis roaches, commonly used as feed source for insectivorous animals in captivity, were determined. Contents of crude protein, fat, ash, chitin, carbohydrates, calcium and phosphorus were analysed. Adults of all species contained more crude protein (602–678 g · kg−1 DM > 489–547 g · kg−1 DM) and ash (42–51 g · kg−1 DM > 36–40 g · kg−1 DM) but less fat (145–214 g · kg−1 DM < 236–363 g · kg−1 DM) than subadults. Chitin content ranged 53–86 g · kg−1 DM and the calcium to phosphorus ratio was 1:1.9–23.5. Amino and fatty acid profiles were also determined. Very high levels of glycine (66.4–166.2 g · kg−1 DM) and alanine (81.5–118.4 g · kg−1 DM) were found in all examined samples. On the other hand, the lowest amino acid levels were determined in such sulphuric amino acids as cysteine (0.5–2.1 g · kg−1 DM) and methionine (4.0–17.2 g · kg−1 DM). Regarding essential amino acids, very high lysine (48.6–94.0 g · kg−1 DM) and valine (53.3–84.0 g · kg−1 DM) levels were determined. Essential amino acid index was found at the level of 0.4–0.9. In analysed cockroaches high oleic (38.0–44.2%), linoleic (8.5–15.3%) and palmitic (21.6–26.8%) fatty acids levels were determined. The obtained results indicate that quantity of protein and lipids varied between subadult and adult cockroaches within the species, while quality of these nutrients remained stable.
 
REFERENCES (23)
1.
Barker D., Fitzpatrick M.P., Dierenfeld E.S., 1998. Nutrient composition of selected whole invertebrates. Zoo Biol. 17, 123–134, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)...<123:: AID-ZOO7>3.0.CO;2-B
 
2.
Barroso F.G., de Haro C., Sánchez-Muros M.-J., Venegas E., Martínez- Sánchez A., Pérez-Bañónc C., 2014. The potential of various insect species for use as food for fish. Aquaculture 422–423, 193–201, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aqua...
 
3.
Bernard J.B., Allen M.E., 1997. Feeding captive insectivorous animals: Nutritional aspects of insects as food. Nutrition Advisory Group Handbook, Fact Sheet 3, 1–7
 
4.
Bosch G., Zhang S., Oonincx D.G.A.B., Hendriks W.H., 2014. Protein quality of insects as potential ingredients for dog and cat foods. J. Nutr. Sci. 3, e29, https://doi.org/10.1017/jns.20...
 
5.
European Commission Regulation (EC), 2009, No. 152/2009. Official Journal of the European Union. Available from: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal... 3A32009R0152
 
6.
Finke M.D., 2002. Complete nutrient composition of commercially raised invertebrates used as food for insectivores. Zoo Biol. 21, 269–285, https://doi.org/10.1002/zoo.10...
 
7.
Finke M.D., 2013. Complete nutrient content of four species of feeder insects. Zoo Biol. 32, 27–36, https://doi.org/10.1002/ zoo.21012
 
8.
Halder S.K., Adak A., Maity C., Jana A., Das A., Paul T., Ghosh K., Das Mohapatra P.K., Pati B.R., Mondal K.C., 2013. Exploitation of fermented shrimp-shells hydrolysate as functional food: Assessment of antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic and prebiotic activities. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 51, 924–934.
 
9.
ISO 5983-1:2005, 2005. Animal feeding stuffs – Determination of nitrogen content and calculation of crude protein content – Part 1: Kjeldahl method. International Organization for Standardization. Geneva (Switzerland)
 
10.
ISO 12966-2:2011, 2011. Animal and vegetable fats and oils – Gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters – Part 2: Preparation of methyl esters of fatty acids. International Organization for Standardization. Geneva (Switzerland)
 
11.
Józefiak D., Józefiak A., Kierończyk B., Rawski M., Świątkiewicz S., Długosz J., Engberg R.M., 2016. Insects – a natural nutrient source for poultry – a review. Ann. Anim. Sci. 16, 297–313, https://doi.org/10.1515/aoas-2...
 
12.
Liu S., Sun J., Yu L., Zhang C., Bi J., Zhu F., Qu M., Jiang C., Yang Q., 2012. Extraction and characterization of chitin from the beetle Holotrichia parallela Motschulsky. Molecules 17, 4604–4611, https://doi.org/10.3390/molecu...
 
13.
NRC, 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals. 4th Edition. National Academy Press. Washington, DC (USA), https://doi.org/10.17226/4758
 
14.
NRC, 2003. Nutrient Requirements for Nonhuman Primates. 2nd Edition. National Academic Press. Washington, DC (USA), https://doi.org/10.17226/9826
 
15.
Oonincx D.G.A.B., Dierenfeld E.S., 2012. An investigation into the chemical composition of alternative invertebrate prey. Zoo Biol. 31, 40–54, https://doi.org/10.1002/zoo.20...
 
16.
Oonincx D.G.A.B., van Broekhoven S., van Huis A., van Loon J.J.A., 2015. Feed conversion, survival and development, and composition of four insect species on diets composed of food byproducts. PLoS ONE 10, e0144601, https://doi.org/10.1371/journa...
 
17.
Sánchez-Muros M.-J., Barroso F.G., Manzano-Agugliaro F., 2014. Insect meal as renewable source of food for animal feeding: a review. J. Clean. Prod. 65, 16–27, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcle...
 
18.
Tzompa-Sosa D.A., Yi L., van Valenberg H.J.F., van Boekel M.A.J.S., Lakemond C.M.M., 2014. Insect lipid profile: aqueous versus organic solvent-based extraction methods. Food Res. Int. 62, 1087–1094, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.food...
 
19.
van Huis A., Van Itterbeeck J., Klunder H., Mertens E., Halloran A., Muir G., Vantomme P., 2013. Edible insects: Future prospect for food and feed security. FAO Forestry Paper 171, pp. 201
 
20.
Velíšek J., 2014. The Chemistry of Food. Wiley-Blackwell. Chichester (UK)
 
21.
Wang D., Zhai S.W., Zhang C.X., Bai Y.Y., An S.H., Xu Y.N., 2005. Evaluation on nutritional value of field crickets as a poultry feedstuff. Asian-Austalas. J. Anim. Sci. 18, 667–670, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2...
 
22.
Wang D., Zhai S.-W., Zhang C.-X., Zhang Q., Chen H., 2007. Nutrition value of the Chinese grasshopper Acrida cinerea (Thunberg) for broilers. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 135, 66–74, https://doi. org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.05.013
 
23.
Yi L., Lakemond C.M.M., Sagis L.M.C., Eisner-Schadler V., van Huis A., van Boekel M.A.J.S., 2013. Extraction and characterisation of protein fractions from five insect species. Food Chem. 141, 3341–3348, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.food...
 
 
CITATIONS (10):
1.
Unlocking the biological potential of proteins from edible insects through enzymatic hydrolysis: A review
Alice B. Nongonierma, Richard J. FitzGerald
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies
 
2.
Effect of sex on the nutritional value of house cricket, Acheta domestica L.
Martin Kulma, Lenka Kouřimská, Vladimír Plachý, Matěj Božik, Anna Adámková, Vladimír Vrabec
Food Chemistry
 
3.
Which insect species can best be proposed for human consumption?
Attila Gere, Dalma Radványi, Károly Héberger
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies
 
4.
Effect of drying processes in the chemical, physico-chemical, techno-functional and antioxidant properties of flours obtained from house cricket (Acheta domesticus)
Raquel Lucas-González, Juana Fernández-López, José Pérez-Álvarez, Manuel Viuda-Martos
European Food Research and Technology
 
5.
Endoparasites observed within invertebrates used as live food items for captive wild birds: Overview and potential risks
Cruz da, Sandra Marques, Inês Andretta
Zoo Biology
 
6.
Edible insects as a food source: a review
Chufei Tang, Ding Yang, Huaijian Liao, Hongwu Sun, Chuanjing Liu, Lanjun Wei, Fanfan Li
Food Production, Processing and Nutrition
 
7.
Effect of developmental stage on the nutritional value of edible insects. A case study with Blaberus craniifer and Zophobas morio
Martin Kulma, Lenka Kouřimská, Dana Homolková, Matěj Božik, Vladimír Plachý, Vladimír Vrabec
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis
 
8.
Will Yellow Mealworm Become a Source of Safe Proteins for Europe?
Anna Bordiean, Michał Krzyżaniak, Mariusz Stolarski, Stanisław Czachorowski, Dumitru Peni
Agriculture
 
9.
Edible Insects versus Meat—Nutritional Comparison: Knowledge of Their Composition Is the Key to Good Health
Agnieszka Orkusz
Nutrients
 
10.
Chemical Composition, Nutrient Quality and Acceptability of Edible Insects Are Affected by Species, Developmental Stage, Gender, Diet, and Processing Method
Victor Meyer-Rochow, Ruparao Gahukar, Sampat Ghosh, Chuleui Jung
Foods
 
ISSN:1230-1388