Experimental intestinal stress induced by duodenal distention in sheep
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Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw Agricultural University, Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, 05-110 Jabłonna, Poland
Publication date: 1999-03-19
J. Anim. Feed Sci. 1999;8(2):233–245
The effect of various degrees of 5 min duodenum distention (performed with a balloon filled with 20, 30, 40 or 80 ml of water, DD 20-DD 80) on spike bursts and motility of the forestomach and abomasum was investigated in sheep which, under general anaesthesia, had electrodes inserted into the muscular layers of the forestomachs, abomasum and duodenum, as well as into fistulas in the muscular layers of the rumen. Duodenal distention of DD 20 to DD 30 ml did not change the frequency of spike bursts or reticulo-ruminal motility, but significantly increased the amplitude of contractions (F=74.40 and F=110.02; P<0.001, respectively). In some animals a change in behaviour was observed (the animals shifted their weight from one foot to the other, urinated and/or defecated, looked around). Five min duodenal distention of DD 40 and DD 80 caused immediate and complete inhibition lasting for about 10 min of both the frequency of spike bursts and reticulo-ruminal contractions (F=43.46; P<0.001 and F=44.37; P<0.001, respectively) as well as of the amplitude of contractions (F= 142.25 and F=236.48; P<0.001, respectively). A l l animals showed the following signs: stretching their bodies, bleating, gnashing of teeth, lying down, urinating and defecating. Blood plasma Cortisol level increased significantly during gastrointestinal motility inhibition from 16.23±1.12 to 42.7±7.2 (F=58.88; P<0.001) during DD 40 and from 19.58±1.81 to 56.6 ±5.7 ng∙ml-1 30 min after the end of DD 80 ml (F=25.47; P<0.001). Duodenal distention inhibited forestomach motility proportionately to the degree of distention (F=31.87; P<0.001). This reaction is called the viscero-visceral inhibitory reflex. Moreover, it caused a change in animal behaviour and a significant increase in the plasma Cortisol concentration, testifying to the fact that this is a general reaction to pain as a stressor. The obtained results show that the model is sufficient to cause stress. It also allows the gradation of stress intensity. It can be concluded, therefore, that the above model can be used in testing anticolic drugs.
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