CC-BY 4.0

Evaluation of microalgae as sources of digestible nutrients for monogastric animals

A. Skrede 1  ,  
L. T. Mydland 1,  
Ø. Ahlstrøm 2,  
K. I. Reitan 3,  
Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aquaculture Protein Centre, CoE, Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås
Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås
SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture, N-7465 Trondheim, Norway
Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås
J. Anim. Feed Sci. 2011;20(1):131–142
Publication date: 2011-03-12
The study was carried out to evaluate three microalgae as potential nutrient sources in diets for monogastric animals. In a digestibility experiment with adult mink (Mustela vison), the microalgae Nannochloropsis oceanica, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Isochrysis galbana were fed at 60, 120 and 240 g kg-1 as is, replacing fish meal. The N. oceanica and P. tricornutum had similar crude protein (CP) content (47.7 and 49.0% of DM, respectively), amino acid composition and lipid content (8.4 and 7.4%, respectively), whereas I. galbana contained 20.1% CP and 16.2% lipids. There was a significant linear reduction in CP digestibility with increasing dietary inclusion of all algae products. The apparent CP digestibility determined by linear regression for N. oceanica, P. tricornutum and I. galbana was 35.5, 79.9 and 18.8%, respectively. The individual amino acid digestibilities showed acceptable values for P. tricornutum, but low and highly variable values for N. oceanica and I. galbana. Although the algae contributed a minor proportion of dietary lipids, lipid digestibility declined with increasing inclusion of all algae and especially with the highest level of N. oceanica. It was concluded from the mink study that among the investigated algae, P. tricornutum was the preferable source of digestible nutrients.
A. Skrede   
Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aquaculture Protein Centre, CoE, Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås
1. Handbook of Marine Microalgae
A. Catarina Guedes, Isabel Sousa-Pinto, F. Xavier Malcata
2. Effects of Reduced Soybean-Meal Diets Containing Moringa oleifera or Leucaena leucocephala Leaf Meals on Growth Performance, Plasma Lysozyme, and Total Intestinal Proteolytic Enzyme Activity of Juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, in Outdoor Tank
Tom Kasiga, Ruguang Chen, Todd Sink, Rebecca Lochmann
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society
3. Digestibility of the defatted microalgaeNannochloropsissp. andDesmodesmussp. when fed to Atlantic salmon,Salmo salar
Y. Gong, H.A.D.S. Guterres, M. Huntley, M. Sørensen, V. Kiron
Aquaculture Nutrition
4. Fractionation of rapeseed meal by milling, sieving and air classification—Effect on crude protein, amino acids and fiber content and digestibility
Jon Øvrum Hansen, Anders Skrede, Liv Torunn Mydland, Margareth Øverland
Animal Feed Science and Technology
5. In vitro bioaccessibility of proteins and lipids of pH-shift processed Nannochloropsis oculata microalga
L R. Cavonius, E. Albers, I. Undeland
Food Funct.
6. Microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum in feed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) —Effect on nutrient digestibility, growth and utilization of feed
Mette Sørensen, Gerd Marit Berge, Kjell Inge Reitan, Bente Ruyter
7. Nannochloropsis oceania-derived defatted meal as an alternative to fishmeal in Atlantic salmon feeds
Mette Sørensen, Yangyang Gong, Fridrik Bjarnason, Ghana K. Vasanth, Dalia Dahle, Mark Huntley, Viswanath Kiron, José L. Soengas
8. The cell wall of autotrophic microalgae influences the enrichment of long chain omega-3 fatty acids in the egg
Charlotte Lemahieu, Charlotte Bruneel, Céline Dejonghe, Johan Buyse, Imogen Foubert
Algal Research
9. Microalgae in aquafeeds for a sustainable aquaculture industry
Mahfuzur Rahman Shah, Giovanni Antonio Lutzu, Asraful Alam, Pallab Sarker, M. A. Kabir Chowdhury, Ali Parsaeimehr, Yuanmei Liang, Maurycy Daroch
Journal of Applied Phycology
10. Influence of extraction solvent system on extractability of lipid components from different microalgae species
Eline Ryckebosch, Charlotte Bruneel, Romina Termote-Verhalle, Koenraad Muylaert, Imogen Foubert
Algal Research
11. Marine microalgae Pavlova viridis and Nannochloropsis sp. as n-3 PUFA source in diets for juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)
S. Haas, J. L. Bauer, A. Adakli, S. Meyer, S. Lippemeier, K. Schwarz, C. Schulz
Journal of Applied Phycology
12. Handbook of Microalgal Culture
Jonathan Gressel
13. In vitro prediction of digestible protein content of marine microalgae ( Nannochloropsis granulata ) meals for Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei ) and rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss )
Sean M. Tibbetts, Fanny Yasumaru, Daniel Lemos
Algal Research
14. Growth performance and quality traits of European sea bass (D. labrax) fed diets including increasing levels of freeze-dried Isochrysis sp. (T-ISO) biomass as a source of protein and n-3 long chain PUFA in partial substitution of fish derivatives
E. Tibaldi, G. Chini Zittelli, G. Parisi, M. Bruno, G. Giorgi, F. Tulli, S. Venturini, M.R. Tredici, B.M. Poli
15. Electroporation in Food Processing and Biorefinery
Samo Mahnič-Kalamiza, Eugène Vorobiev, Damijan Miklavčič
The Journal of Membrane Biology
16. A techno-economic analysis of industrial production of marine microalgae as a source of EPA and DHA-rich raw material for aquafeed: Research challenges and possibilities
Matilde S. Chauton, Kjell Inge Reitan, Niels Henrik Norsker, Ragnar Tveterås, Hans T. Kleivdal
17. Effects of graded levels of a blend of Tisochrysis lutea and Tetraselmis suecica dried biomass on growth and muscle tissue composition of European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax ) fed diets low in fish meal and oil
G. Cardinaletti, M. Messina, M. Bruno, F. Tulli, B.M. Poli, G. Giorgi, G. Chini-Zittelli, M. Tredici, E. Tibaldi
18. Continual feeding of two types of microalgal biomass affected protein digestion and metabolism in laying hens1
R. D. Ekmay, K. Chou, A. Magnuson, X. G. Lei
Journal of Animal Science
19. Microalgal Biotechnology
Sean Michael Tibbetts
20. Using microalgae in the circular economy to valorise anaerobic digestate: Challenges and Opportunities
William A.V. Stiles, David Styles, Stephen P. Chapman, Sandra Esteves, Angela Bywater, Lynsey Melville, Alla Silkina, Ingrid Lupatsch, Claudio Fuentes Grünewald, Robert Lovitt, Tom Chaloner, Andy Bull, Chris Morris, Carole A. Llewellyn
Bioresource Technology
21. Bioavailability and Safety of Nutrients from the Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris, Nannochloropsis oceanica and Phaeodactylum tricornutum in C57BL/6 Mice
Ulrike Neumann, Felix Derwenskus, Andrea Gille, Sandrine Louis, Ulrike Schmid-Staiger, Karlis Briviba, Stephan Bischoff
22. Microalgae Scenedesmus sp. as a potential ingredient in low fishmeal diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)
Yangyang Gong, Tharindu Bandara, Mark Huntley, Zackary I. Johnson, Jorge Dias, Dalia Dahle, Mette Sørensen, Viswanath Kiron
23. Impact of Nannochloropsis sp. dosage form on the oxidative stability of n-3 LC-PUFA enriched tomato purees
Lore Gheysen, Nele Lagae, Jolien Devaere, Koen Goiris, Peter Goos, Tom Bernaerts, Ann Van Loey, Luc De Cooman, Imogen Foubert
Food Chemistry
24. Solubility of extracted proteins from Chlorella sorokiniana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and Nannochloropsis oceanica: Impact of pH-value
Lutz Grossmann, Jörg Hinrichs, Jochen Weiss
25. Defatted microalgae (Nannochloropsis sp.) from biorefinery as a potential feed protein source to replace fishmeal in European sea bass diets
Luísa Maria Pinheiro Valente, Marco Custódio, Sónia Batista, Helena Fernandes, Viswanath Kiron
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
26. Organic Aquaculture
Elena Mente, Alfred Jokumsen, Chris G. Carter, Efi Antonopoulou, Albert G. J. Tacon
27. A Comprehensive Overview on Microalgal-Fortified/Based Food and Beverages
Rossana Sidari, Rosanna Tofalo
Food Reviews International
28. Feeding effects of the microalga Nannochloropsis sp. on juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.)
Hongjin Qiao, Dongxue Hu, Ji Ma, Xiaoyan Wang, Hongyan Wu, Jiying Wang
Algal Research
29. Apparent nutrient and fatty acid digestibilities of microbial raw materials for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with comparison to conventional ingredients
Hüseyin Sevgili, Soner Sezen, Adil Yılayaz, Özgür Aktaş, Faruk Pak, Inga Aasen, Kjell Reitan, Michael Sandmann, Sascha Rohn, Gamze Turan, Mahir Kanyılmaz
Algal Research
30. Update of the list of QPS‐recommended biological agents intentionally added to food or feed as notified to EFSA 10: Suitability of taxonomic units notified to EFSA until March 2019
Kostas Koutsoumanis, Ana Allende, Avelino Alvarez‐Ordóñez, Declan Bolton, Sara Bover‐Cid, Marianne Chemaly, Robert Davies, Friederike Hilbert, Roland Lindqvist, Maarten Nauta, Luisa Peixe, Giuseppe Ru, Marion Simmons, Panagiotis Skandamis, Elisabetta Suffredini, Pier Cocconcelli, Escámez Fernández, Miguel Maradona, Amparo Querol, Juan Suarez, Ingvar Sundh, Just Vlak, Fulvio Barizzone, Sandra Correia, Lieve Herman
EFSA Journal
31. Cell Membrane Permeabilization Studies of Chlorella sp. by Pulsed Electric Fields
D. Rego, L. Costa, M. Pereira, L. Redondo
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
32. Nutrient composition and protein quality of microalgae meals produced from the marine prymnesiophyte Pavlova sp. 459 mass-cultivated in enclosed photobioreactors for potential use in salmonid aquafeeds
Sean Tibbetts, Shane Patelakis, Crystal Whitney-Lalonde, Laura Garrison, Cheryl Wall, Scott MacQuarrie
Journal of Applied Phycology
33. Wastewater Treatment Residues as Resources for Biorefinery Products and Biofuels
Tim Hülsen, Gilda Carvalho, Felix Egger, Heidy Cruz, Willy Vertstraete, Damien Batstone, Ilje Pikaar
34. Grand Challenges in Algae Biotechnology
Inna Khozin-Goldberg, Olga Sayanova
35. Effects of dietary marine microalgae, Tetraselmis suecica , on production, gene expression, protein markers and bacterial count of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
Zaki Sharawy, Mohamed Ashour, Eman Abbas, Ola Ashry, Mohamed Helal, Hany Nazmi, Mahmoud Kelany, Abdelwahab Kamel, Mohamed Hassaan, Waldemar Rossi, Ehab El-Haroun, Ashraf Goda
Aquaculture Research
36. Electroporation as a Solvent-Free Green Technique for Non-Destructive Extraction of Proteins and Lipids From Chlorella vulgaris
Tina Eleršek, Karel Flisar, Blaž Likozar, Marina Klemenčič, Janvit Golob, Tadej Kotnik, Damijan Miklavčič
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
37. The effect of Nannochloropsis oceanica feed inclusion on rabbit muscle proteome
D.M. Ribeiro, J. Bandarrinha, P. Nanni, S.P. Alves, C.F. Martins, R.J.B. Bessa, L. Falcão-e-Cunha, A.M. Almeida
Journal of Proteomics
38. Nutraceutical Fatty Acids from Oleaginous Microalgae
Jyoti Sharma, Pampi Sarmah, Narsi Bishnoi
39. The Application of Single-Cell Ingredients in Aquaculture Feeds—A Review
Brett Glencross, David Huyben, Johan Schrama
40. Use of technological processing of seaweed and microalgae as strategy to improve their apparent digestibility coefficients in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles
Sónia Batista, Manuela Pintado, Alexandra Marques, Helena Abreu, Joana Silva, Flemming Jessen, Francesca Tulli, Luisa Valente
Journal of Applied Phycology
41. Handbook of Microalgae-Based Processes and Products
Caleb Acquah, Sean Tibbetts, Sharadwata Pan, Chibuike Udenigwe
42. Effect of dietary Schizochytrium sp. oil as an n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid source on growth performance, lipid metabolism and antioxidant status in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus ): A comparative study with fish oil
Junxia Xing, Fenfen Xiao, Xiaolong Luo, Jian Sun, Handong Li, Xiangtong Yuan, Hong Ji
Aquaculture Research
43. Application of in vitro protein solubility for selection of microalgae biomass as protein ingredient in animal and aquafeed
Subhash Venkata, Neera Chugh, Supriya Iyer, Ashish Waghmare, Amar Musale, Rajesh Nandru, Rakhi Dixit, Mahadev Gaikwad, Deepthi Menon, Rakesh Thorat, G.Raja Kumar, Vinod Nagle, Uma Sagaram, Santanu Dasgupta
Journal of Applied Phycology
44. Protein hunger of the feed sector: the alternatives offered by the plant world
Giuliana Parisi, Francesca Tulli, Riccardo Fortina, Rosaria Marino, Paolo Bani, Zotte Dalle, Angeli De, Giovanni Piccolo, Luciano Pinotti, Achille Schiavone, Genciana Terova, Aldo Prandini, Laura Gasco, Alessandra Roncarati, Pier Danieli
Italian Journal of Animal Science
45. A Rat Study to Evaluate the Protein Quality of Three Green Microalgal Species and the Impact of Mechanical Cell Wall Disruption
Yanwen Wang, Sean Tibbetts, Fabrice Berrue, Patrick McGinn, Scott MacQuarrie, Anil Puttaswamy, Shane Patelakis, Dominique Schmidt, Ronald Melanson, Sabrena MacKenzie
46. Effects of dietary use of two lipid extracts from the microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana (Lubián, 1982) alone and in combination on growth and muscle composition in juvenile gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata
R. Sales, A. Galafat, A.J. Vizcaíno, M.I. Sáez, T.F. Martínez, M.C. Cerón-García, E. Navarro-López, M.Y. Tsuzuki, F.G. Acién-Fernández, E. Molina-Grima, F.J. Alarcón
Algal Research