The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of powdered mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor L.) reared on different nutritional substrates. Wheat bran was used as the control substrate, while, barley (whole grain), oats (whole grain), oats and barley whole grain mixture (50:50), buckwheat, and mixture of oat and barley sprouts (50:50) were selected as experimental substrates. A proximate analysis and mineral content determination were carried out for all substrates and larvae. Since insects are becoming an attractive alternative protein source for poultry, pigs and fish as a “novel” and natural feed material, lysine, methionine, and threonine levels have also been determined. Furthermore, in addition to fat content, the fatty acid profile was also determined. It was found that wheat bran was the most suitable substrate in terms of high protein yield in larvae (71% dry weight) with lowest fat content (7% dry weight). Linoleic acid content was the highest in the larvae fed wheat bran, while the highest α-linolenic acid content was obtained in the larvae reared on a mixture of oat and barley sprouts (50:50). Moreover, linear regression analysis demonstrated a weak correlation of substrate and larval protein content for all selected substrates. The highest content of each mineral was also obtained in the larvae reared on wheat bran (except iron and manganese, which were the second highest). Based on the experimental results, it can be concluded that meals from T. molitor larvae are an excellent feed material for use in livestock diets, especially those reared on wheat bran.
This research was funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of Serbia (Contract Number: 451-03-9/2021- 14/ 200117).
The Authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
摘要:本研究目的是调查在不同营养基质上饲养的黄粉虫幼虫的化学成分。以麦麸为对照基质,试验基质 分为大麦(全谷物)、燕麦(全谷物)、燕麦和大麦全谷物混合物(50:50)、荞麦和燕麦及大麦芽混合物 (50:50)共四组。对所有基质和幼虫进行了近似分析和矿物质含量测定。由于昆虫正在成为家禽、猪和 鱼的一种有吸引力的替代蛋白质来源,作为一种“新的”天然饲料材料,因此,对其赖氨酸、蛋氨酸和苏 氨酸水平也进行了测定。另外,对其脂肪含量和组成也进行了测定。结果表明,小麦麸皮是最适合的营养 基质,其蛋白质产量高(干重71%),脂肪含量最低(干重7%)。饲喂麦麸的黄粉虫幼虫的亚油酸含量最 高,而饲喂燕麦和大麦芽(50:50)的黄粉虫幼虫的α-亚麻酸含量最高。线性回归分析表明,所有营养基质 和幼虫蛋白质含量均呈弱相关性。在麦麸饲养的幼虫中,每种矿物质的含量也最高(铁和锰的含量次之) 。试验结果表明,所有试验组的黄粉虫幼虫都是一种优良的家畜日粮饲料原料,尤其是用麦麸基质饲养的 黄粉虫幼虫。
AOAC International, 2005. AOAC Official Method 934.01. Moisture in Animal Feed. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 18th Edition. Gaithersburg, MD (USA)
AOAC International, 2006. Method 991.36. Fat (Crude) in meat and meat products. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 18th Edition. Arlington, TX (USA)
AOAC International, 2009. AOAC Official Method 2001.11. Protein (crude) in animal feed, forage (plant tissue), grain and oilseeds. In: J.W. Horwitz, L. George (Editors). Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. Gaithersburg, MD (USA)
AOAC International, 2012. AOAC Official Method 942.05. Ash of animal feed. In: G. Latimer (Editor). Official Methods of analysis of AOAC International, 19th Edition. Gaithersburg, MD (USA)
AOCS (American Oil Chemists Society), 2017. Standard Procedure Ba 6a-05 Crude Fiber in Feed by Filter Bag Technique. 7th Edition. Urbana, IL (USA)
Arrese E.L., Soulages J.L., 2010. Insect fat body: energy, metabolism, and regulation. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 55, 207–225, https://doi.org/10.1146/annure...
Boisen S., 2003. Ideal dietary amino acid profiles for pigs. In: J.P.F. D’Mello (Editor). Amino acids in animal nutrition. CAB International. Wallingford, OX (UK), pp.157–168, https://doi.org/10.1079/978085...
Bordiean A., Krzyzaniak M., Stolarski M.J., Czachorowski S., Peni D., 2020. Will yellow mealworm become a source of safe proteins for Europe? Agriculture 10, 233, https://doi.org/10.3390/agricu...
Caparros Megido R., Gierts C., Blecker C., Brostaux Y., Haubruge É., Alabi T., Francis F., 2016. Consumer acceptance of insect-based alternative meat products in Western countries. Food Qual. Pref. 52, 237–243, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.food...
Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/893, 2017. Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/893 of 23 May 2017 amending Annexes I and IV of Regulation (EC) No 999/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Annexes X, XIV and XV to Commission Regulation (EU) No 142/2011 as regards the provisions on processed animal protein. Off. J. Eur. Union. L138, 92–116, https://op.europa.eu/en/public...
Finke M.D., 2002. Complete nutrient composition of commercially raised invertebrates used as food for insectivores. Zoo Biol. 21, 269–285, https://doi.org/10.1002/zoo.10...
Finke M.D., 2015. Complete nutrient content of four species of commercially available feeder insects fed enhanced diets during growth. Zoo Biol. 34, 554–564, https://doi.org/10.1002/zoo.21...
Gao H.L., Li H.T., Zhang L., Hao M.J., 2010. Effects of Tenebrio molitor L. larva decomposing polystyrene foam. Adv. Mat. Res. 113, 1972–1975, https://doi.org/10.4028/www.sc...
Ghosh S., Lee S.M., Jung C., Meyer-Rochow V.B., 2017. Nutritional composition of five commercial edible insects in South Korea. J. Asia Pac. Entomol. 20, 686–694, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aspe...
Heckmann L.-H., Andersen J.L., Gianotten N., Calis M., Fischer C.H., Calis H., 2018. Sustainable mealworm production for feed and food. In: A. Halloran, R. Flore, P. Vantomme, N. Roos (Editors). Edible insects in sustainable food systems. Springer, Cham., pp 321–328, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
Jajić I., Krstović S., Glamočić D., Jakšić S., Abramović B., 2013. Validation of an HPLC method for the determination of amino acids in feed. J. Serbian Chem. Soc. 78, 839–850, https://doi.org/10.2298/JSC120...
Janssen R.H., Vincken J.P., van den Broek L.A.M., Fogliano V., Lakemond C.M.M., 2017. Nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors for three edible insects: Tenebrio molitor, Alphitobius diaperinus, and Hermetia illucens. J. Agric. Food Chem. 65, 2275–2278, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.ja...
Kim S.Y., Chung T.H., Kim S.H., Song S.H., Kim N.J., 2014. Recycling agricultural wastes as feed for mealworm (Tenebrio molitor). Korean J. Appl. Entomol. 53, 365–371, https://doi.org/10.5656/KSAE.2...
Klasing K.C., Thacker P., Lopez M.A., Calvert C.C., 2000. Increasing the calcium content of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) to improve their nutritional value for bone mineralization of growing chicks. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 31, 512–517, https://doi.org/10.1638/1042-7...
Mancini S., Fratini F., Tuccinardi T., Degl’Innocenti C., Paci G., 2020. Tenebrio molitor reared on different substrates: is it gluten free? Food Control 110, 107014, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.food...
Mattioli S., Paci G., Fratini F., Dal Bosco A., Tuccinardi T., Mancini S., 2021. Former foodstuff in mealworm farming: Effects on fatty acids profile, lipid metabolism and antioxidant molecules. LWT 147, 111644, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt....
Melis R., Braca A., Sanna R., Spada S., Mulas G., Leonarda Fadda M., Maddalena Sassu M., Serra G., Anedda R., 2019. Metabolic response of yellow mealworm larvae to two alternative rearing substrates. Metabolomics 15, 1–13, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11306...
Oonincx D.G.A.B., van Broekhoven S., van Huis A., van Loon J.J.A., 2015. Feed conversion, survival and development, and composition of four insect species on diets composed of food byproducts. PLOS One 10, e0144601, https://doi.org/10.1371/journa...
Pinotti L., Giromini C., Ottoboni M., Tretola M., Marchis D., 2019. Review: Insects and former foodstuffs for upgrading food waste biomasses/streams to feed ingredients for farm animals. Animal 13, 1365–1375, https://doi.org/10.1017/S17517...
Ramos-Elorduy J., 2002. Edible insects of chiapas, Mexico. Ecol. Food Nutr. 41, 271–299, https://doi.org/10.1080/036702...
Rees D. (Editor), 2004. Insects of stored products. CSIRO publishing. Clayton, Vic (Australia), https://doi.org/10.1071/978064...
Regulation (EU) 2015/2283, 2015. Regulation (EU) 2015/2283 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 2015 on novel foods, amending Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November and repealing Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Commission Regulation (EC) No 1852/2001. Off. J. Eur. Union. L327, 1–12, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/lega...
Rho M.S., Lee K.P., 2016. Balanced intake of protein and carbohydrate maximizes lifetime reproductive success in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J. Insect Physiol. 91–92, 93–99, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jins...
Ribeiro N., Abelho M., Costa R., 2018. A review of the scientific literature for optimal conditions for mass rearing Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J. Entomol. Sci. 53, 434-454, https://doi.org/10.18474/JES17...
Rumbos C.I., Karapanagiotidis I.T., Mente E., Psofakis P., Athanassiou, C.G., 2020. Evaluation of various commodities for the development of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor. Sci. Rep. 10, 1–10, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598...
Sogari G., Amato M., Biasato I., Chiesa S., Gasco L., 2019. The potential role of insects as feed: A multi-perspective review. Animals 9, 119, https://doi.org/10.3390/ani904...
Stull V.J., Kersten M., Bergmans R.S., Patz J.A., Paskewitz S., 2019. Crude protein, amino acid, and iron content of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) reared on an agricultural byproduct from maize production: An exploratory study. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 112, 533–543, https://doi.org/10.1093/aesa/s...
Turck D., Castenmiller J., De Henauw S. et al., 2021. Safety of dried yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. In: EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA). EFSA Journal 19, e06343, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa...
Tzompa-Sosa D.A., Yi L., van Valenberg H.J., van Boekel M.A., Lakemond C.M., 2014. Insect lipid profile: aqueous versus organic solvent-based extraction methods. Food Res. Int. 62, 1087–1094, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.food...
Van Broekhoven S., Oonincx D.G.A.B., van Huis A., van Loon J.J.A., 2015. Growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of three edible mealworm species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on diets composed of organic by-products. J. Insect Physiol. 73, 1–10, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jins...
Wegier A., Alavez V., Pérez-López J., Calzada L., Cerritos R., 2018. Beef or grasshopper hamburgers: The ecological implications of choosing one over the other. Basic Appl. Ecol. 26, 89–100, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae...
Wu R.A., Ding Q., Yin L., Chi X., Sun N., He R., Luo L., Ma H., Li, Z., 2020. Comparison of the nutritional value of mysore thorn borer (Anoplophora chinensis) and mealworm larva (Tenebrio molitor): Amino acid, fatty acid, and element profiles. Food Chem. 323, 126818, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.food...
Zielińska E., Baraniak B., Karaś M., Rybczyńska K., Jakubczyk A., 2015. Selected species of edible insects as a source of nutrient composition. Food Res. Int. 77, 460–466, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.food...
Reference Module in Food Science
Chiara Nitride, Giovanni D'Auria, Alessandra Ferrara, Pasquale Ferranti
Nutrient Composition and Growth of Yellow Mealworm (Tenebrio Molitor) at Different Ages and Stages of the Life Cycle
Odunayo Toviho, Péter Bársony
Influence of Dietary Protein Content on the Nutritional Composition of Mealworm Larvae (Tenebrio molitor L.)
Nina Kröncke, Rainer Benning
Effect of Duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza)-Supplemented Semolina on the Production Parameters and Nutrient Composition of Yellow Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor)
Odunayo Toviho, Moutia Imane, Pusztahelyi Tünde, Bársony Péter
The nutritional profile, mineral content and heavy metal uptake of yellow mealworm reared with supplementation of agricultural sidestreams
Isabelle Noyens, Floris Schoeters, Peer Van, Siebe Berrens, Sarah Goossens, Miert Van
Scientific Reports
From waste to food and bioinsecticides: An innovative system integrating Tenebrio molitor bioconversion and pyrolysis bio-oil production
Rodrigo Urrutia, Emiliano Jesser, Victoria Gutierrez, Silvana Rodriguez, Fernanda Gumilar, Ana Murray, Maria Volpe, Jorge Werdin-González
Nutritional Value of Banded Cricket and Mealworm Larvae
Jagoda Kępińska-Pacelik, Wioletta Biel, Cezary Podsiadło, Grzegorz Tokarczyk, Patrycja Biernacka, Grzegorz Bienkiewicz
Improving the nutritional values of yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae as an animal feed ingredient: a review
Linggawastu Syahrulawal, Magnhild Torske, Rumakanta Sapkota, Geir Næss, Prabhat Khanal
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Improving Tenebrio molitor Growth and Nutritional Value through Vegetable Waste Supplementation
Gloria López-Gámez, Raquel del Pino-García, María Asunción López-Bascón, Vito Verardo
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top