ORIGINAL PAPER
On the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in pig feed on growth performance, nutrients utilization and DON metabolism
S. Dänicke 1  
,   T. Goyarts 1,   H. Valenta 1,   E. Razzazi 2,   J. Böhm 2
 
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1
Institute of Animal Nutrition, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany
2
Institute of Nutrition, Veterinary University of Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, A-1210 Vienna, Austria
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
S. Dänicke   

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany
Publication date: 2004-10-25
 
J. Anim. Feed Sci. 2004;13(4):539–556
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Control wheat and wheat artificially inoculated with Fusarium culmorum and as well as wheat contaminated mainly with deoxynivalenol (DON) were gradually blended to yield diets for pigs with increasing DON concentrations (0.2, 0.7, 1.2, 2.5, 3.7 mg/kg) at a total wheat content of 400 g/kg diet. Performance was recorded over a liveweight range between 34 and 104 kg (n=l 8 per group). Blood was drawn from the jugular vein after five weeks on the experimental diets to determine the clinical-chemical parameters and DON concentrations. In addition, a balance study was carried out with the groups fed the diets with the lowest and the highest DON concentration to test the effects on nutrient digestibility and DON metabolism. DON and its metabolite de-epoxy-DON were analysed in physiological samples by HPLC after cleanup by immuno-affinity columns (IAC). Performance of pigs was not significantly affected by increasing dietary DON concentrations, although there was a trend toward a decrease in weight. This was especially true for the group fed the diet with 3.7 mg DON/kg, which consumed 5% less feed and gained 8% less liveweight than the control group. Serum clinical-chemical parameters, such as albumin, total protein, GLDH, ASAT, γ-GT and immunoglobulins were not influenced by the dietary treatments. DON concentration in serum increased in a dose-response-related manner and did clearly reflect the DON exposure of the animals. However, adverse effects on performance were only obvious for the group fed the diet with the highest DON concentration. No significant differences were found for nutrient digestibility of the tested diets. With regard to the DON balance and metabolism, urine was the main excretory route. A total of 52.3% of the ingested DON was eliminated as the parent toxin whereas 2.6% was excreted as the metabolite de-epoxy- DON in the group fed the diet with 3.7 mg DON/kg. The excretion of both substances accounted for approximately 98% of the total DON recovery from urine and faeces, which indicates the important role of the urinary elimination route. De-epoxy-DON accounted for approximately 5% of the urinary excretion of de-epoxy-DON plus DON, whereas in faeces a ratio of approximately 97% was found, which underlines the role of the digestive tract in the metabolism of DON in the pig.
 
CITATIONS (46):
1.
Systemic and local effects of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) are not alleviated by dietary supplementation of humic substances (HS)
Sven Dänicke, Bianca Brosig, Leslie Raja Klunker, Stefan Kahlert, Jeannette Kluess, Susanne Döll, Hana Valenta, Hermann-Josef Rothkötter
Food and Chemical Toxicology
 
2.
Interactions of deoxynivalenol and lipopolysaccharides on tissue protein synthesis in pigs
K. Kullik, B. Brosig, S. Kersten, H. Valenta, A.-K. Diesing, P. Panther, N. Reinhardt, J. Kluess, H.-J. Rothkötter, G. Breves, S. Dänicke
World Mycotoxin Journal
 
3.
Crop biomass and humidity related factors reflect the spatial distribution of phytopathogenic Fusarium fungi and their mycotoxins in heterogeneous fields and landscapes
Marina E. H. Müller, Sylvia Koszinski, Donovan E. Bangs, Marc Wehrhan, Andreas Ulrich, Gernot Verch, Alexander Brenning
Precision Agriculture
 
4.
Bioavailability of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) from naturally contaminated wheat for the pig
Tanja Goyarts, Sven Dänicke
Toxicology Letters
 
5.
Deoxynivalenol transport across human intestinal Caco-2 cells and its effects on cellular metabolism at realistic intestinal concentrations
Thérèse Sergent, Marie Parys, Serge Garsou, Luc Pussemier, Yves-Jacques Schneider, Yvan Larondelle
Toxicology Letters
 
6.
The Impact of the Fusarium Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol on the Health and Performance of Broiler Chickens
Wageha A. Awad, Michael Hess, Magdalena Twarużek, Jan Grajewski, Robert Kosicki, Josef Böhm, Jürgen Zentek
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
 
7.
Effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its microbial biotransformation product deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) on a trout, pig, mouse, and human cell line
Elisabeth Mayer, Barbara Novak, Alexandra Springler, Heidi E. Schwartz-Zimmermann, Veronika Nagl, Nicole Reisinger, Sabine Hessenberger, Gerd Schatzmayr
Mycotoxin Research
 
8.
Effects of deoxynivalenol and lipopolysaccharide on electrophysiological parameters in growing pigs
Amal Halawa, Sven Dänicke, Susanne Kersten, Gerhard Breves
Mycotoxin Research
 
9.
Short Communication: Antioxidant capacity in the intestinal mucosa of weanling piglets fed diets containing Fusarium mycotoxins and the efficacy of commercial supplements sold as detoxifiers
Bich Van Le Thanh, Martin Lessard, Younès Chorfi, Frédéric Guay
Canadian Journal of Animal Science
 
10.
On the Effects of a Chronic Deoxynivalenol Intoxication on Performance, Haematological and Serum Parameters of Pigs when Diets are Offered Either for Ad Libitum Consumption or Fed Restrictively
T. Goyarts, S. Danicke, H.-J. Rothkotter, J. Spilke, U. Tiemann, M. Schollenberger
Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A
 
11.
The efficacy of a modified aluminosilicate as a detoxifying agent in Fusarium toxin contaminated maize containing diets for piglets
S. Doll, S. Gericke, S. Danicke, J. Raila, K.-H. Ueberschar, H. Valenta, U. Schnurrbusch, F. J. Schweigert, G. Flachowsky
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
 
12.
On the specific and unspecific effects of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent on piglets when fed with uncontaminated or withFusariumtoxins contaminated diets
Sven Dänicke, Tanja Goyarts, Hana Valenta
Archives of Animal Nutrition
 
13.
Deoxynivalenol and its metabolite deepoxy-deoxynivalenol: multi-parameter analysis for the evaluation of cytotoxicity and cellular effects
Alexandra Springler, Sabine Hessenberger, Nicole Reisinger, Corinna Kern, Veronika Nagl, Gerd Schatzmayr, Elisabeth Mayer
Mycotoxin Research
 
14.
The food contaminant deoxynivalenol activates the mitogen activated protein kinases in the intestine: Interest of ex vivo models as an alternative to in vivo experiments
Joelma Lucioli, Philippe Pinton, Patrick Callu, Joëlle Laffitte, François Grosjean, Martine Kolf-Clauw, Isabelle P. Oswald, Ana Paula F.R.L. Bracarense
Toxicon
 
15.
Effects of deoxynivalenol in naturally contaminated wheat on feed intake and health status of horses
Anna-Katharina Schulz, Susanne Kersten, Sven Dänicke, Manfred Coenen, Ingrid Vervuert
Mycotoxin Research
 
16.
Kinetics and metabolism of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol in farm animals: Consequences for diagnosis of exposure and intoxication and carry over
Sven Dänicke, Ulrike Brezina
Food and Chemical Toxicology
 
17.
Study on the transmission of deoxynivalenol and de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol into eggs of laying hens using a high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet method with clean-up by immunoaffinity columns
Hana Valenta, Sven Dänicke
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
 
18.
Metabolism of the masked mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in pigs
Veronika Nagl, Bettina Woechtl, Heidi Elisabeth Schwartz-Zimmermann, Isabel Hennig-Pauka, Wulf-Dieter Moll, Gerhard Adam, Franz Berthiller
Toxicology Letters
 
19.
On the effects of graded levels of Fusarium toxin contaminated wheat in diets for gilts on feed intake, growth performance and metabolism of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone
Sven Dänicke, Klaus-Peter Brüssow, Hana Valenta, Karl-Heinz Ueberschär, Ute Tiemann, Margit Schollenberger
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
 
20.
Zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B1 and their metabolites in pig urine as biomarkers for mycotoxin exposure
N. Q. Thieu, H. Pettersson
Mycotoxin Research
 
21.
Risks to human and animal health related to the presence of deoxynivalenol and its acetylated and modified forms in food and feed
Helle Katrine Knutsen, Jan Alexander, Lars Barregård, Margherita Bignami, Beat Brüschweiler, Sandra Ceccatelli, Bruce Cottrill, Michael Dinovi, Bettina Grasl‐Kraupp, Christer Hogstrand, Laurentius (Ron) Hoogenboom, Carlo Stefano Nebbia, Isabelle P Oswald, Annette Petersen, Martin Rose, Alain‐Claude Roudot, Tanja Schwerdtle, Christiane Vleminckx, Günter Vollmer, Heather Wallace, Sarah De Saeger, Gunnar Sundstøl Eriksen, Peter Farmer, Jean‐Marc Fremy, Yun Yun Gong, Karsten Meyer, Hanspeter Naegeli, Dominique Parent‐Massin, Ivonne Rietjens, Hans van Egmond, Andrea Altieri, Mari Eskola, Petra Gergelova, Luisa Ramos Bordajandi, Bistra Benkova, Barbara Dörr, Athanasios Gkrillas, Nicklas Gustavsson, Mathijs van Manen, Lutz Edler
EFSA Journal
 
22.
Effects of potential detoxifying agents on growth performance and deoxynivalenol (DON) urinary balance characteristics of nursery pigs fed DON-contaminated wheat1,2
H.L. Frobose, E. W. Stephenson, M.D. Tokach, J.M. DeRouchey, J. C. Woodworth, S.S. Dritz, R.D. Goodband
Journal of Animal Science
 
23.
Risk Assessment of Deoxynivalenol by Revisiting Its Bioavailability in Pig and Rat Models to Establish Which Is More Suitable
Manuel Saint-Cyr, Agnès Perrin-Guyomard, Jacqueline Manceau, Paméla Houée, Jean-Michel Delmas, Jean-Guy Rolland, Michel Laurentie
Toxins
 
24.
Clinical impact of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol on the severity of an experimental Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in pigs
Annelies Michiels, Ioannis Arsenakis, Anneleen Matthijs, Filip Boyen, Geert Haesaert, Kris Audenaert, Mia Eeckhout, Siska Croubels, Freddy Haesebrouck, Dominiek Maes
BMC Veterinary Research
 
25.
An acute challenge with a deoxynivalenol-contaminated diet has short- and long-term effects on performance and feeding behavior in finishing pigs1
Aira Maye Serviento, Ludovic Brossard, David Renaudeau
Journal of Animal Science
 
26.
Residues of deoxynivalenol (DON) in pig tissue after feeding mash or pellet diets containing low concentrations
Susanne Döll, Sven Dänicke, Hana Valenta
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
 
27.
Research note: Effects of deoxynivalenol on immunohistological parameters in pigs
S. Döll, T. Goyarts, H. J. Rothkötter, S. Dänicke
Mycotoxin Research
 
28.
Secondary Metabolites in Soil Ecology
Susanne Elmholt
 
29.
Mycotoxins and Their Metabolites in Humans and Animals
Martin Weidenbörner
 
30.
Effect of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) on IgA, IgM and IgG concentrations and proliferation of porcine blood lymphocytes
Tanja Goyarts, Sven Dänicke, Ute Tiemann, Hermann-Josef Rothkötter
Toxicology in Vitro
 
31.
Effects of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol from naturally contaminated wheat given subchronically or as one single dose on the in vivo protein synthesis of peripheral blood lymphocytes and plasma proteins in the pig
Tanja Goyarts, Nicola Grove, Sven Dänicke
Food and Chemical Toxicology
 
32.
In vivoandin vitroeffects of the mycotoxins zearalenone and deoxynivalenol on different non-reproductive and reproductive organs in female pigs: A review
U. Tiemann, S. Dänicke
Food Additives and Contaminants
 
33.
Carry-over ofFusariumtoxins (deoxynivalenol and zearalenone) from naturally contaminated wheat to pigs
Tanja Goyarts, Sven Dänicke, Hana Valenta, Karl-Heinz Ueberschär
Food Additives and Contaminants
 
34.
Analysis of deoxynivalenol and de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol in animal tissues by liquid chromatography after clean-up with an immunoaffinity column
H. Valenta, S. Dänicke, S. Döll
Mycotoxin Research
 
35.
Effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and DON metabolism in pigs
T. Goyarts, S. Dänicke
Mycotoxin Research
 
36.
A probiotic feed additive containing spores of Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis does not prevent absorption and toxic effects of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol in piglets
Sven Dänicke, Susanne Döll
Food and Chemical Toxicology
 
37.
Studies on the toxicity of deoxynivalenol (DON), sodium metabisulfite, DON-sulfonate (DONS) and de-epoxy-DON for porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cell lines IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2, and on effects of DON and DONS on piglets
S. Dänicke, Anne-Kathrin Hegewald, S. Kahlert, Jeannette Kluess, H.-J. Rothkötter, G. Breves, Susanne Döll
Food and Chemical Toxicology
 
38.
Pig Urinary Concentration of Mycotoxins and Metabolites Reflects Regional Differences, Mycotoxin Intake and Feed Contaminations
Lucia Gambacorta, Monica Olsen, Michele Solfrizzo
Toxins
 
39.
On the Interactions Between Fusarium Toxin-Contaminated Wheat and Nonstarch Polysaccharide Hydrolyzing Enzymes in Diets of Broilers on Performance, Intestinal Viscosity, and Carryover of Deoxynivalenol
S. Da¨nicke, H. Valenta, S. Matthes
Poultry Science
 
40.
In Vitro Effects of Deoxynivalenol on Small Intestinal d-Glucose Uptake and Absorption of Deoxynivalenol Across the Isolated Jejunal Epithelium of Laying Hens
W.A. Awad, J.R. Aschenbach, F.M.C.S. Setyabudi, E. Razzazi-Fazeli, J. Böhm, J. Zentek
Poultry Science
 
41.
Comparative toxicokinetics of Fusarium mycotoxins in pigs and humans
Wim Schelstraete, Mathias Devreese, Siska Croubels
Food and Chemical Toxicology
 
42.
Validation study on urinary biomarkers of exposure for aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in piglets
S. Gambacorta, H. Solfrizzo, A. Visconti, S. Powers, A.M. Cossalter, P. Pinton, I.P. Oswald
World Mycotoxin Journal
 
43.
Deoxynivalenol Has the Capacity to Increase Transcription Factor Expression and Cytokine Production in Porcine T Cells
Eleni Vatzia, Alix Pierron, Anna Hoog, Armin Saalmüller, Elisabeth Mayer, Wilhelm Gerner
Frontiers in Immunology
 
44.
Effect of long-term feeding of graded levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and organ health in finishing pigs and DON content in biological samples
Michael Wellington, Michael Bosompem, Raelene Petracek, Veronika Nagl, Daniel Columbus
Journal of Animal Science
 
45.
Equations to Predict Growth Performance Changes by Dietary Deoxynivalenol in Pigs
Jongkeon Kim, Jin Jeong, Jung Sung, Beob Kim
Toxins
 
46.
Effect of long-term feeding of graded levels of deoxynivalenol on performance, nutrient utilization, and organ health of grower-finisher pigs (35 to 120 kg)
Michael Wellington, Michael Bosompem, Lucas Rodrigues, Daniel Columbus
Journal of Animal Science
 
ISSN:1230-1388