1.054
IF5
1.150
IF
Q3
JCR
1.7
CiteScore
0.396
SJR
Q2
SJR
40
MNiSW
148.75
ICV
ORIGINAL PAPER
 
CC-BY-NC 4.0
 
 

The effects of supplementation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and postbiotic from Lactobacillus acidophilus on the health and growth performance of young Jersey heifer calves

M. Thorsteinsson 1  ,  
H. L. Martin 2,  
T. Larsen 1,  
J. Sehested 3,  
 
1
Aarhus University, Department of Animal Science, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele, Denmark
2
SEGES, Agro Food Park 15, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark
3
Aarhus University, International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele, Denmark
J. Anim. Feed Sci. 2020;29(3):224–233
Publication date: 2020-09-30
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
The study aimed to investigate the effects of a yeast/lactobacillus product, ‘ZooLac Bovimix Milk’, on the performance and health of Jersey heifer calves during the first month of life. The product contained live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and postbiotic from Lactobacillus acidophilus. Danish Jersey heifer calves (n = 148) at birth were randomly allocated to a control diet (CON; 76 calves) or a diet supplemented with the yeast/lactobacillus product in the milk replacer (PRO; 72 calves). The average birth weight was 25.5 ± 0.3 kg and 25.4 ± 0.3 kg for CON and PRO groups, respectively. The yeast/lactobacillus product constituted 0.7% dry matter (DM) of the milk replacer for PRO group. Faecal samples were collected from 40 calves of each treatment around days 6–8 and 25–28, while blood was sampled from all calves around days 2–4 and 26–28. Additionally, 30 other faecal samples were obtained from some calves treated for diarrhoea. Significantly higher growth performance was observed in PRO group animals than in CON group ones, while no effect was found in the number of antibiotic treatments. The DM-% in manure from PRO group tended to be higher than for CON. Causative agents of diarrhoea were either Cryptosporidium spp., rotavirus A or both. Serum metabolites were unaffected by the treatment, however CON group tended to have a higher IgA level. Thus, supplementation of the yeast/lactobacillus product into the milk replacer during the first month of life had a positive effect on calf growth performance but did apparently not affect the overall health.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The study was granted by The Danish Milk Levy Fund and The Danish Cattle Levy Fund, and it was carried within the research project ’Robust calves’. The yeast/lactobacillus product was supplied free of charge to the farmer by ChemVet, Denmark. We are indebted to the skilled work done by the private farmer and the staff where the production trial was carried out. Carsten Berthelsen is are acknowledged for analyzing the serum samples.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
M. Thorsteinsson   
Aarhus University, Department of Animal Science, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele, Denmark
 
REFERENCES (44):
1. Alugongo G.M., Xiao J., Wu Z., Li S., Wang Y., Cao Z., 2017a. Review: Utilization of yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae origin in artificially raised calves. J Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 8, E34, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104....
2. Alugongo G.M., Xiao J.X., Chung Y.H., Dong S.Z., Li S L., Yoon I., Wu Z.H., Cao Z.J., 2017b. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products on dairy calves: Performance and health. J. Dairy Sci. 100, 1189–1199, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
3. Baldwin R.L.V., Mcleod K.R., Klotz J.L., Heitmann R.N., 2004. Rumen development, intestinal growth and hepatic metabolism in the pre- and postweaning ruminant. J. Dairy Sci. 87, 55–65, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
4. Basoglu A., Sen I., Sevinc M., Simsek A., 2004. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in neonatal calves with presumed septicemia. J. Vet. Int. Med. 18, 238–241, https://doi. org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2004.tb00167.x.
5. Baynes R.E., Dedonder K., Kissell L., Mzyk D., Marmulak T., Smith G., Tell L., Gehring R., Davis J., Riviere J.E., 2016. Health concerns and management of select veterinary drug residues. Food Chem. Toxicol. 88, 112–122, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.....
6. Brewer M.T., Anderson K.L., Yoon I., Scott M.F., Carlson S.A., 2014. Amelioration of salmonellosis in pre-weaned dairy calves fed Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products in feed and milk replacer. Vet. Microbiol. 172, 248–255, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetm....
7. Eshdat Y., Ofek I., Yashouv-Gan Y., Sharon N., Mirelman D., 1978. Isolation of a mannose-specific lectin from Escherichia coli and its role in the adherence of the bacteria to epithelial cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 85, 1551–1559, https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2....
8. Fuerst-Waltl B., Sørensen M.K., 2010. Genetic analysis of calf and heifer losses in Danish Holstein. J. Dairy Sci. 93, 5436–5442, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
9. Galvao K.N., Santos J.E., Coscioni A., Villasenor M., Sischo W.M., Berge A.C., 2005. Effect of feeding live yeast products to calves with failure of passive transfer on performance and patterns of antibiotic resistance in fecal Escherichia coli. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 45, 427–440, https://doi.org/10.1051/rnd:20....
10. Gelsinger S.L., Heinrichs A.J., Jones C.M., 2016. A meta-analysis of the effects of preweaned calf nutrition and growth on first lactation performance. J Dairy Sci. 99, 6206–6214, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
11. Godden S.M., Haines D.M., Hagman D., 2009. Improving passive transfer of immunoglobulins in calves. I: dose effect of feeding a commercial colostrum replacer. J. Dairy Sci. 92, 1750–1757, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
12. Goecke N.B., Hjulsager C.K., Krog J.S., Skovgaard K., Larsen L.E., 2020. Development of a high-throughput real-time PCR system for detection of enzootic pathogens in pigs. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 32, 51–64, https://doi.org/10.1177/104063....
13. Gånheim C., Alenius S., Persson K.W., 2007. Acute phase proteins as indicators of calf herd health. Vet. J. 173, 645–651, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl....
14. Gånheim C., Hultén C., Carlsson U., Kindahl H., Niskanen R., Waller K.P., 2003. The acute phase response in calves experimentally infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus and/or Mannheimia haemolytica. J. Vet. Med. B Infect. Dis. Vet. Public Health 50, 183–190, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439....
15. Harano Y., Ohtsuki M., Ida M., Kojima H., Harada M., Okanishi T., Kashiwagi A., Ochi Y., Uno S., Shigeta Y., 1985. Direct automated assay method for serum or urine levels of ketone bodies. Clin. Chim. 151, 177–183, https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-8....
16. Harris T.L., Liang Y., Sharon K.P., Sellers M.D., Yoon I., Scott M.F., Carroll J.A., Ballou M.A., 2017. Influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products, SmartCare in milk replacer and original XPC in calf starter, on the performance and health of preweaned Holstein calves challenged with Salmonella enterica. serotype Typhimurium. J. Dairy Sci. 100, 7154–7164, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
17. Heinrichs A.J., Heinrichs B.S., 2011. A prospective study of calf factors affecting first-lactation and lifetime milk production and age of cows when removed from the herd. J. Dairy Sci. 94, 336–341, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
18. Hill S.R., Hopkins B.A., Davidson S., Bolt S.M., Diaz D.E., Brownie C., Brown T., Huntington G.B., Whitlow L.W., 2009. The addition of cottonseed hulls to the starter and supplementation of live yeast or mannanoligosaccharide in the milk for young calves. J. Dairy Sci. 92, 790–798, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
19. Humam A.M., Loh T.C., Foo H.L., Samsudin A.A., Mustapha N.M., Zulkifli I., Izuddin W.I., 2019. Effects of feeding different postbiotics produced by Lactobacillus plantarum on growth performance, carcass yield, intestinal morphology, gut microbiota composition, immune status, and growth gene expression in broilers under heat stress. Animals 9, 644, https://doi.org/10.3390/ani909...
20. Izuddin W.I., Loh T.C., Samsudin A.A., Foo H.L., Humam A.M., Shazali N., 2019. Effects of postbiotic supplementation on growth performance, ruminal fermentation and microbial profile, blood metabolite and GHR, IGF-1 and MCT-1 gene expression in post-weaning lambs. BMC Vet. Res. 15, 315, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917....
21. Jensen M.B., Jensen A., Vestergaard M., 2020. The effect of milk feeding strategy and restriction of meal patterning on behavior, solid feed intake, and growth performance of male dairy calves fed via computer-controlled milk feeders. J. Dairy Sci. (in press), https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
22. Jensen G., Patterson K., Yoon I., 2008. Nutritional yeast culture has specific anti-microbial properties without affecting healthy flora. Preliminary results. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 17, 247–252, https://doi.org/10.22358/jafs/....
23. Kelly D., Coutts A.G., 2000. Early nutrition and the development of immune function in the neonate. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 59, 177–185, https://doi.org/10.1017/S00296....
24. Khormizi S.R.H., Banadaky M.D., Rezayazdi K., Zali A., 2010. Effects of live yeast and aspergillus niger meal extracted supplementation on milk yield, feed efficiency and nutrients digestibility in holstein lactating cows. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 9, 1934–1939, https://doi.org/10.3923/javaa....
25. Kogan G., Kocher A., 2007. Role of yeast cell wall polysaccharides in pig nutrition and health protection. Livest. Sci. 109, 161–165, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livs....
26. Lesmeister K.E., Heinrichs A.J., Gabler M.T., 2004. Effects of supplemental yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) culture on rumen development, growth characteristics, and blood parameters in neonatal dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci. 87, 1832–1839,https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
27. Loh T.C., Thu T.V., Foo H.l., Bejo M.H., 2013. Effects of different levels of metabolite combination produced by Lactobacillus plantarum on growth performance, diarrhoea, gut environment and digestibility of postweaning piglets. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 41, 200–207, https://doi.org/10.1080/097121....
28. Magalhaes V.J., Susca F., Lima F.S, Branco A.F., Yoon I., Santos J.E., 2008. Effect of feeding yeast culture on performance, health, and immunocompetence of dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci. 91, 1497–1509, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
29. McGuirk S.M., 2008. Disease management of dairy calves and heifers. Vet. Clin. North Am.: Food Anim. Pract. 24, 139–153, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa....
30. Nizet V., Varki A., Aebi M., 2017. Microbial lectins: hemagglutinins, adhesins, and toxins. In: A. Varki, R.D. Cummings, J.D. Esko, P. Stanley et al. (Editors). Essentials of Glycobiology. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Cold Spring Harbor, NY (USA).
31. Nonnecke B.J., Foote M.R., Miller B.L., Fowler M., Johnson T.E., Horst R.L., 2009. Effects of chronic environmental cold on growth, health, and select metabolic and immunologic responses of preruminant calves. J. Dairy Sci. 92, 6134–6143, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
32. Ohland C.l., MacNaughton W.K., 2010. Probiotic bacteria and intestinal epithelial barrier function. Am. J. Physiol.-Gastr. L. 298, 807–819, https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.....
33. Poppy G.D., Rabiee A.R., Lean I.J., Sanchez W.K., Dorton K.L., Morley P.S., 2012. A meta-analysis of the effects of feeding yeast culture produced by anaerobic fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on milk production of lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 95, 6027–6041, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
34. Quigley J.D., 1996. Influence of weaning method on growth, intake, and selected blood metabolites in Jersey calves. J. Dairy Sci. 79, 2255–2260, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
35. Quigley J.D., Bernard J.K., Tyberendt T.l., Martin K.R., 1994. Intake, growth, and selected blood parameters in calves fed calf starter via bucket or bottle. J. Dairy Sci. 77, 354–357, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
36. Quigley J.D., Caldwell L.A., Sinks G.D., Heitmann R.N., 1991. Changes in blood glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, and ketones in response to weaning and feed intake in young calves. J. Dairy Sci. 74, 250–257, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
37. Quigley J.D., Wolfe T.A., Elsasser T.H., 2006. Effects of additional milk replacer feeding on calf health, growth, and selected blood metabolites in calves. J. Dairy Sci., 89, 207–216, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
38. Shen Y.B., Piao X.S., Kim S.W., Wang L., Liu P., Yoon I., Zhen Y.G., 2009. Effects of yeast culture supplementation on growth performance, intestinal health, and immune response of nursery pigs. J. Anim. Sci., 87, 2614–2624, https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.20...
39. Soberon F., Van Amburgh M.E., 2013. Lactation biology symposium: The effect of nutrient intake from milk or milk replacer of preweaned dairy calves on lactation milk yield as adults: a meta-analysis of current data. J. Anim. Sci. 91, 706–712, https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.20....
40. Spring P., Wenk C., Dawson K.A., Newman K.E., 2000. The effects of dietary mannaoligosaccharides on cecal parameters and the concentrations of enteric bacteria in the ceca of salmonella-challenged broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 79, 205–211, https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/79.....
41. Thorsteinsson M., Vestergaard M., 2020. Performance and health of young rosé veal calves supplemented with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and a postbiotic from Lactobacillus acidophilus. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 29, 115–124, https://doi.org/10.22358/jafs/....
42. Thu T.V., Loh T.C., Foo H.l., Yaakub H., Bejo M.H., 2011. Effects of liquid metabolite combinations produced by Lactobacillus plantarum on growth performance, faeces characteristics, intestinal morphology and diarrhoea incidence in postweaning piglets. Trop. Anim. Health Pro. 43, 69–75, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250....
43. Wegh C.A.M., Geerlings S.Y., Knol J., Roeselers G., Belzer C., 2019. Postbiotics and their potential applications in early life nutrition and beyond. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, e4673, https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20....
44. Yong-Il C., Kyoung-Jin Y., 2014. An overview of calf diarrhea - Infectious etiology, aiagnosis, and intervention. J. Vet. Sci. 15, 1–17, https://doi.org/10.4142/jvs.20....
ISSN:1230-1388