Effects of dietary supplementation with Bacillus subtilis and yeast culture on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum indices and faeces microbiota of weaned piglets
K. Cui 1
X. lv 1
More details
Hide details
Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
Publication date: 2019-12-27
Corresponding author
N. Zhang   

Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
J. Anim. Feed Sci. 2019;28(4):328-336
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Bacillus subtilis and yeast culture (YC) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum biochemical and immunological parameters and microbial community of weaned pigs. One hundred and ninety-two weaned piglets (Large White × Landrace, 96 males and 96 females) with an average initial body weight of 8.22 ± 1.46 kg were randomly divided into 4 groups (8 piglets per pen, 6 pens per group). Piglets in the control group were fed a basal diet with 1 g/kg of bacitracin zinc and the others were fed basal diets supplemented with 1 g/kg of solid-state products containing 1010 CFU/g of B. subtilis or 3 g/kg of YC with live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells of 4.5 × 106 CFU/g or the combination of two above mentioned supplements. Pigs were fed the experimental diets for 41 days. There was no significant difference in body weight and feed intake of piglets between control and other experimental groups. In comparison to the control group, the ether extract digestibility was increased in all supplemented group, and the P digestibility was decreased only in B. subtilis group. The supplementation with B. subtilis and/or YC did not affect either serum biochemical or immunological parameters in comparison to the control group. Also, the similar effect on faecal microbiota composition was stated in the supplemented groups and control one. B. subtilis or YC could be used as a substitute for antibiotics and so be applied to the rearing of weaned piglets. However, the usage of their combination in the examined proportion does not enhance the effect.
Alexopoulos C., Georgoulakis I.E., Tzivara A., Kritas S.K., Siochu A., Kyriakis S.C., 2004. Field evaluation of the efficacy of a probiotic containing Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis spores, on the health status and performance of sows and their litters. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 88, 381–392, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439....
AOAC, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 15th Edition. Arlington, VA (USA).
Arena M.P., Caggianiello G., Fiocco D., Russo P., Torelli M., Spano G., Capozzi V., 2014. Barley β-glucans-containing food enhances probiotic performances of beneficial bacteria. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, 3025–3039, https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15....
Barton M.D., 2000. Antibiotic use in animal feed and its impact on human health. Nutr. Res. Rev. 13, 279–299, https://doi.org/10.1079/095442....
Benyacoub J., Czarnecki-Maulden G.L., Cavadini C., Sauthier T., Anderson R.E., Schiffrin E.J., von der Weid T., 2003. Supplementation of food with Enterococcus faecium (SF68) stimulates immune functions in young dogs. J. Nutr. 133, 1158–1162, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/133....
Canning P., Ruston C., Madson D. et al., 2017. Effect of direct-fed microbial Bacillus subtilis C-3102 on enteric health in nursery pigs after challenge with porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus. J. Swine Health Prod. 25, 129–137.
Caporaso J.G., Kuczynski J., Stombaugh J. et al., 2010. QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data. Nat. Methods 7, 335–336, https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.....
Chattopadhyay M.K., 2014. Use of antibiotics as feed additives: a burning question. Front. Microbiol. 5, article ID 334, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.....
Dong T., Feng Q., Liu F., Chang L.K., Zhou X., Han M., Tian X., Zhong N., Liu S., 2017. Alteration of stomach microbiota compositions in the progression of gastritis induces nitric oxide in gastric cell. Exp. Ther. Med. 13, 2793–2800, https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.20....
Edgar R.C., 2013. UPARSE: highly accurate OTU sequences from microbial amplicon reads. Nat. Methods 10, pp. 996–998, https://doi.org/10.1038/NMETH.....
Estrada-Angulo A., Valdés Y.S., Carrillo-Muro O., Castro-Perez B.I., Barreras A., López-Soto M.A., Plascencia A., Dávila- Ramos H., Rios F.G., Zinn R.A., 2013. Effects of feeding different levels of chromium-enriched live yeast in hairy lambs fed a corn-based diet: effects on growth performance, dietary energetics, carcass traits and visceral organ mass. Anim. Prod. Sci. 53, 308–315, https://doi.org/10.1071/AN1219....
Favero A., Ragland D., Vieira S.L., Owusu-Asiedu A., Adeola O., 2014. Digestibility marker and ileal amino acid digestibility in phytase-supplemented soybean or canola meals for growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92, 5583–5592, https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.20....
Gareau M.G., Sherman P.M., Walker W.A., 2010. Probiotics and the gut microbiota in intestinal health and disease. Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 7, 503–514, https://doi.org/10.1038/nrgast....
Hansen H.H., El-Bordeny N.E., Ebeid H.M., 2017. Response of primiparous and multiparous buffaloes to yeast culture supplementation during early and mid-lactation. Anim. Nutr. 3, 411–418, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anin....
Hung A.T., Lin S.-Y., Yang T.-Y., Chou C.-K., Liu H.-C., Lu J.-J., Wang B., Chen S.-Y., Lien T.-F., 2012. Effects of Bacillus coagulans ATCC 7050 on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and microflora composition in broiler chickens. Anim. Prod. Sci. 52, 874–879, https://doi.org/10.1071/AN1133....
Jørgensen J.N., Laguna J.S., Millán C., Casabuena O., Gracia M.I., 2016. Effects of a Bacillus-based probiotic and dietary energy content on the performance and nutrient digestibility of wean to finish pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 221, 54–61, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anif....
Kaewtapee C., Burbach K., Tomforde G., Hartinger T., Camarinha- Silva A., Heinritz S., Seifert J., Wiltafsky M., Mosenthin R., Rosenfelder-Kuon P., 2017. Effect of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis supplementation in diets with low- and high-protein content on ileal crude protein and amino acid digestibility and intestinal microbiota composition of growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 8, article ID 37, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104....
Kamada N., Seo S.-U., Chen G.Y., Núñez G., 2013. Role of the gut microbiota in immunity and inflammatory disease. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 13, 321–335, https://doi.org/10.1038/nri343....
Kim K.H., Ingale S.L., Kim J.S., Lee S.H., Lee J.H., Kwon I.K., Chae B.J., 2014. Bacteriophage and probiotics both enhance the performance of growing pigs but bacteriophage are more effective. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 196, 88–95, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anif....
Kiros T.G., Derakhshani H., Pinloche E., D’Inca R., Marshall J., Auclair E., Khafipour E., Van Kessel A., 2018. Effect of live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Actisaf Sc 47) supplementation on the performance and hindgut microbiota composition of weanling pigs. Sci. Rep. 8, article ID 5315, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598....
Kornegay E.T., Rhein-Welker D., Lindemann M.D., Wood C.M., 1995. Performance and nutrient digestibility in weanling pigs as influenced by yeast culture additions to starter diets containing dried whey or one of two fiber sources. J. Anim. Sci. 73, 1381–1389, https://doi.org/10.2527/1995.7....
Lee S.H., Ingale S.L., Kim J.S., Kim K.H., Lokhande A., Kim E.K., Kwon I.K., Kim Y.H., Chae B.J., 2014. Effects of dietary supplementation with Bacillus subtilis LS 1–2 fermentation biomass on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, cecal microbiota and intestinal morphology of weanling pig. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 188, 102–110, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anif....
Levy S.B., Marshall B., 2004. Antibacterial resistance worldwide: causes, challenges and responses. Nat. Med. 10, S122–S129, https://doi.org/10.1038/nm1145.
Li Y., Xu Q., Huang Z., Lv L., Liu X., Yin C., Yan H., Yuan J., 2016. Effect of Bacillus subtilis CGMCC 1.1086 on the growth performance and intestinal microbiota of broilers. J. Appl. Microbiol. 120, 195–204, https://doi.org/10.1111/jam.12....
Millet S., Maertens L., 2011. The European ban on antibiotic growth promoters in animal feed: From challenges to opportunities. Vet. J. 187, 143–144, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl....
Moore P.R., Evenson A., Luckey T.D., McCoy E., Elvehjem C.A., Hart E.B., 1946. Use of sulfasuxidine, streptothricin, and streptomycin in nutritional studies with the chick. J. Biol. Chem. 165, 437–441.
Ng S.C., Hart A.L., Kamm M.A., Stagg A.J., Knight S.C., 2009. Mechanisms of action of probiotics: recent advances. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 15, 300–310, https://doi.org/10.1002/ibd.20....
NRC (National Research Council), 2012. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 11th Revised Edition. The National Academies Press. Washington, DC (USA), https://doi.org/10.17226/13298.
PeetSchwering C.M.C.V.D., Jansman A.J.M., Smidt H., Yoon I., 2007. Effects of yeast culture on performance, gut integrity, and blood cell composition of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 85, 3099–3109, https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.20....
Rather M.A., Hassan M.N., Rather M.A., 2012. Phage therapy an effective remedy against drug-resistant bugs and hard to treat bacterial infections – a review. J. Adv. Vet. Res. 2, 140–147.
Ren M., Liu C., Zeng X., Yue L., Mao X., Qiao S., Wang J., 2014. Amino acids modulates the intestinal proteome associated with immune and stress response in weaning pig. Mol. Biol. Rep. 41, 3611–3620, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033....
Shen Y.B., Piao X.S., Kim S.W., Wang L., Liu P., Yoon I., Zhen Y.G., 2009. Effects of yeast culture supplementation on growth performance, intestinal health, and immune response of nursery pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87, 2614–2624, https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.20....
Spellberg B., Bartlett J.G., Gilbert D.N., 2013. The future of antibiotics and resistance. N. Engl. J. Med. 368, 299–302, https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1....
Trckova M., Faldyna M., Alexa P., Sramkova Zajacova Z., Gopfert E., Kumprechtova D., Auclair E., D’Inca R., 2014. The effects of live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on postweaning diarrhoea, immune response, and growth performance in weaned piglets. J. Anim. Sci. 92, 767–774, https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.20....
Tripathi M.K., Karim S.A., Chaturvedi O.H., Verma D.L., 2008. Effect of different liquid cultures of live yeast strains on performance, ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in lambs. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 92, 631–639, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439....
Wang Y., Gu Q., 2010. Effect of probiotic on growth performance and digestive enzyme activity of Arbor Acres broilers. Res. Vet. Sci. 89, 163–167, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc....
White L.A., Newman M.C., Cromwell G.L., Lindemann M.D., 2002. Brewers dried yeast as a source of mannan oligosaccharides for weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 80, 2619–2628, https://doi.org/10.1093/ansci/....
Effect of dietary supplementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a postbiotic from Lactobacillus acidophilus on the concentration of organic acids, biogenic amines, and microbiota in the small intestine and colon of rosé veal calves
M. Thorsteinsson, N. Canibe, M. Vestergaard
Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences
Timely Control of Gastrointestinal Eubiosis: A Strategic Pillar of Pig Health
Paolo Trevisi, Diana Luise, Federico Correa, Paolo Bosi
Effects of Bacillus-based probiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal health of weaned pigs
Daye Mun, Hyunjin Kyoung, Myunghwan Kong, Sangdon Ryu, Ki Jang, Jangryeol Baek, Kyeong Park, Minho Song, Younghoon Kim
Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Live Yeast Supplementation in Gestating and Lactating Primiparous Sows Improves Immune Response in Dams and Their Progeny
Tian Xia, Chenggang Yin, Marcello Comi, Alessandro Agazzi, Vera Perricone, Xilong Li, Xianren Jiang
Rhodotorula benthica culture as an alternative to antibiotics improves growth performance by improving nutrients digestibility and intestinal morphology, and modulating gut microbiota of weaned piglets
Qianqian Zhang, Jian Li, Xin Yi, Zipeng Li, Shuang Liang, Zhengfeng Fang, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Bin Feng, Yong Zhuo, De Wu, Lianqiang Che
Frontiers in Microbiology
Probiotic Effects of Bacillus subtilis on Growth Performance and Intestinal Microecological Balance of Growing-to-Finishing Pigs
Ruili Li, Jiewei Liu, Yuhua Liu, Liting Cao, Wanfeng Qiu, Ming Qin, Rotimi Aluko
Journal of Food Biochemistry
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top