Effects of copper sulphate and rumen-protected copper sulphate addition on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and hepatic gene expression in dairy bulls
S. La 1
Q. Liu 1
G. Guo 1
W. Huo 1
C. Pei 1
More details
Hide details
Shanxi Agricultural University, College of Animal Science, Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Taigu, 030801, Shanxi, P. R. China
Publication date: 2020-12-07
Corresponding author
Q. Liu   

Shanxi Agricultural University, College of Animal Science, Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Taigu, 030801, Shanxi, P.R. China
J. Anim. Feed Sci. 2020;29(4):287-296
In the study the effects of copper sulphate (CS) and rumen-protected copper sulphate (RPCS) addition on performance, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and hepatic gene expression in bulls were evaluated. Thirty-six Holstein bulls were randomly assigned to three treatments: control (without Cu supplementation), CS (8 mg/kg dry matter (DM) Cu from CS) and RPCS (8 mg/kg DM Cu from RPCS). Dietary Cu addition did not affect DM intake and average daily gain, but increased apparent nutrients digestibility. Ruminal pH, propionate percentage and ammonia-N concentration decreased, but total volatile fatty acids concentration and acetate percentage increased with dietary Cu inclusion. Activities of carboxymethyl-cellulase, xylanase and laccase and populations of total bacteria, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Ruminococcus albus increased, but α-amylase activity decreased with dietary Cu provision. In bulls receiving RPCS supplementation greater activities of xylanase, pectinase and α-amylase and populations of Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens were noted than in those receiving CS addition. Activities of laccase and protease were lower in RPCS group than in CS one. Liver Cu concentration was the highest in RPCS animals, followed by CS, and then control ones. Hepatic expressions of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 receptor, phosphoinositide 3-kinase and ribosomal protein S6 kinase were reduced by RPCS, but were not affected by CS addition. Hepatic expression of mammalian target of rapamycin was the lowest in RPCS group, followed by CS, and then control ones. It is suggested that dietary Cu addition promoted nutrients digestion and ruminal fermentation, and replacement of CS with RPCS down-regulated hepatic protein synthesis metabolism genes expression.
Agarwal N., Kamra D.N., Chaudhary L.C., Agarwal I., Sahoo A., Pathak N.N., 2002. Microbial status and rumen enzyme profile of crossbred calves fed on different microbial feed additives. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 34, 329–336, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1472....
AOAC International, 2000. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 17th Edition. Arlington, VA (USA).
Breier B.H., 1999. Regulation of protein and energy metabolism by the somatotropic axis. Domest. Anim. Endocrin. 17, 209–218, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0739-....
Denman S.E., McSweeney C.S., 2006. Development of a real-time PCR assay for monitoring anaerobic fungal and cellulolytic bacterial populations within the rumen. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 58, 572–582, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574....
Engle T.E., Spears J.W., 2000a. Dietary copper effects on lipid metabolism, performance, and ruminal fermentation in finishing steers. J. Anim. Sci. 78, 2452–2458, https://doi.org/10.2527/2000.7....
Engle T.E., Spears J.W., 2000b. Effects of dietary copper concentration and source on performance and copper status of growing and finishing steers. J. Anim. Sci. 78, 2446–2451, https://doi.org/10.2527/2000.7....
Gengelbach G.P., Spears J.W., 1998. Effects of dietary copper and molybdenum on copper status, cytokine production, and humoral immune response of calves. J. Dairy Sci. 81, 3286–3292, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
Gross J., Dorland H.A., Schwarz F.J., Bruckmaier R.M., 2011. Endocrine changes and liver mRNA abundance of somatotropic axis and insulin system constituents during negative energy balance at different stages of lactation in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 94, 3484–3494, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Han H., Archibeque S.L., Engle T.E., 2009. Characterization and identification of hepatic mRNA related to copper metabolism and homeostasis in cattle. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 129, 130–136. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011....
Hasman H., Bjerrum M.J., Christiansen L.E., Hansen H.C.B., Aarestrup F.M., 2009. The effect of pH and storage on copper speciation and bacterial growth in complex growth media. J. Microbiol. Methods. 78, 20–24, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mime....
Hu R., Wang Z., Peng Q., Zou H., Wang H., Yu X., Jing X., Wang Y., Cao B., Bao S., Zhang W., Zhao S., J H., Kong X., Niu Q., 2016. Effects of GHRP-2 and cysteamine administration on growth performance, somatotropic axis hormone and muscle protein deposition in yaks (Bos grunniens) with growth retardation. PLoS ONE 11, e0149461. https://doi:10.1371/journal.po....
Kongmun P., Wanapat M., Pakdee P., Navanukraw C., 2010. Effect of coconut oil and garlic powder on in vitro fermentation using gas production technique. Livest. Sci. 127, 38–44, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livs....
LaBella F., Dular R., Vivian S., Qeen G., 1973. Pituitary hormone releasing or inhibiting activity of metal ions present in hypothalamic extracts. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 52, 786–791, https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2....
Lopez-Guisa J.M., Satter L.D., 1992. Effect of copper and cobalt addition on digestion and growth in Heifers fed diets containing alfalfa silage or corn crop residues. J. Dairy Sci. 75, 247–256, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
Miller G.L., 1959. Use of dinitrosalisylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal. Chem. 31, 426–428, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac6014....
Mills C.F., 1987. Biochemical and physiological indicators of mineral status in animals: copper, cobalt and zinc. J. Anim. Sci. 65, 1702–1711, https://doi.org/10.2527/jas198....
NRC, 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle, 7th Revised Edition. National Academy Press. Washington, DC (USA).
Osman D., Cavet J.S., 2008. Copper homeostasis in bacteria. Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 65, 217–247, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-....
Palmieri G., Giardina P., Bianco C., Fontanella B., Sannia G., 2000. Copper induction of laccase isoenzymes in the ligninolytic fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66, 920–924, https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.66....
Pathak A.K., 2008. Various factors affecting microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. Vet. World 1, 186–189.
Pivonello C., Negri M., De Martino M.C., Napolitano M., Angelis C., Provvisiero D.P., Cuomo G., Auriemma R.S., Simeoli C., Izzo F., Colao A., Hofland L.J., Pivonello R., 2016. The dual targeting of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor enhances the mTOR inhibitor-mediated antitumor efficacy in hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncotarget. 7, 9718–9731, https://doi.org/10.18632/oncot....
Ridge P.G., Zhang Y., Gladyshev V.N., 2008. Comparative genomic analyses of copper transporters and cuproproteomes reveal evolutionary dynamics of copper utilization and its link to oxygen. PLoS One. 3, 1–9, https://doi.org/10.1371/journa....
Rodrigues M.A., Pinto P.A., Bezerra R.M., Dias A.A., Guedes C.V.M., Cardoso V.M.G., Cone J.W., Ferreira L.M.M., Colaco J., Sequeir C.A., 2008. Effect of enzyme extracts isolated from white-rot fungi on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 141, 326–338, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anif....
Russell J.B., Wilson D.B., 1996. Why are ruminal cellulolytic bacteria unable to digest cellulose at low pH? J. Dairy Sci. 79, 1503–1509, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
SAS, User's Guide: Statistics, Version 9 Edition., 2002. Statistical Analysis Systems Institute, Cary, NC, USA.
Shang X.K., Wang C., Zhang G.W., Liu Q., Guo G., Huo W.J., Zhang J., Pei C.X., 2020. Effects of soybean oil and dietary copper levels on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, enzyme activity, microflora and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 74, 257–270, https://doi.org/10.1080/174503....
Spears J.W., 2003. Trace mineral bioavailability in ruminants. J. Nutr. 133, 1506–1509, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/133....
Van Soest P.J., Robertson J.B., Lewis B.A., 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74, 3583–3597, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
Vázquez-Armijo J.F., Martínez-Tinajero J.J., López D., Salem A.F.Z.M., Rojo R., 2011. In vitro gas production and dry matter degradability of diets consumed by goats with or without copper and zinc supplementation. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 144, 580–587, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011....
Wang C., Liu Q., Guo G., Huo W.J., Ma L., Zhang Y.L., Pei C.X., Zhang S.L., Wang H., 2016. Effects of rumen-protected folic acid on ruminal fermentation, microbial enzyme activity, cellulolytic bacteria and urinary excretion of purine derivatives in growing beef steers. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 221, 185–194, https://doi.org/10.1080/174503....
Ward J.D., Spears J.W., 1993. Comparison of copper lysine and copper sulfate as copper sources for ruminants using in vitro methods. J. Dairy Sci. 76, 2994–2998, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
Ward J.D., Spears J.W., Kegley E.B., 1993. Effect of copper level and source (copper lysine vs copper sulfate) on copper status, performance, and immune response in growing steers fed diets with or without supplemental molybdenum and sulfur. J. Anim. Sci. 71, 2748–2755, https://doi.org/10.2527/1993.7....
Webb S., Bartos J., Boles R., Hasty E., Thuotte E., Thiex N.J., 2014. Simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in fertilizers by microwave acid digestion and inductively coupled plasmaoptical emission spectrometry detection: Single laboratory validation of a modification and extension of AOAC 2006.03. J. AOAC Int. 97, 700–711, https://doi.org/10.5740/jaoaci....
Yu Z., Morrison M., 2004. Improved extraction of PCR-quality community DNA from digesta and fecal sample. BioTechniques. 36, 808–812, https://doi.org/10.2144/04365S....
Zhang W., Wang R.L., Zhu X.P., Kleemann D.O., Yue C.W., Jia Z.H., 2007. Effects of dietary copper on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility and fibre characteristics in cashmere goats. Asian. Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20, 1843–1848, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2....
Zhou Y.W., McSweeney C.S., Wang J.K., Liu J.X., 2012. Effects of disodium fumarate on ruminal fermentation and microbial communities in sheep fed on high-forage diets. Animal. 6, 815–823, https://doi.org/10.1017/S17517....
Rumen Solubility of Copper, Manganese and Zinc and the Potential Link between the Source and Rumen Function: A Systematic Review
Antal Vigh, Adriana Criste, Nicolae Corcionivoschi, Christine Gerard
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top