REVIEW PAPER
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Milk is a complex biological fluid that ensures the correct growth and development of young mammals. Depending on the stage of lactation, milk is classified as colostrum secreted three days post-parturition and milk produced 72 h after the delivery and they have slightly different nutrient and protein composition. It was shown that the proteome of bovine milk is represented by over 4500 different proteins. In the present paper by using a gene ontology analysis (String analysis), proteins identified in bovine colostrum and milk were grouped into two categories: proteins involved in immunological processes and proteins associated with digestive system development. Among these proteins, proteins characteristic to either colostrum or milk were identified, among others kininogen-2 and cathepsin L1. The constant development of proteomic techniques leads to the identification of novel cow’s whey proteins that have not been found yet. The new, low- and medium-abundant proteins help to better understand the physiological process of calf growth and maturation.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The Authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
 
REFERENCES (28)
1.
Blum J.W., 2006. Nutritional physiology of neonatal calves. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 90, 1–11, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439....
 
2.
Chase C.C.L., Hurley D.J., Reber A.J., 2008. Neonatal immune development in the calf and its impact on vaccine response. Vet. Clin. North. Am. Food Anim. Pract. 24, 87–104, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa....
 
3.
Collard C.D., Väkevä A., Morrissey M.A., Agah A., Rollins S.A., Reenstra W.R., Buras J.A., Meri S., Stahl G.L., 2000. Complement activation after oxidative stress. Role of the lectin complement pathway. Am. J. Pathol. 156, 1549–1556, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-....
 
4.
Delosière M., Pires J., Bernard L., Cassar-Malek I., Bonnet M., 2019. Milk proteome from in silico data aggregation allows the identification of putative biomarkers of negative energy balance in dairy cows. Sci. Rep. 9, 9718, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598....
 
5.
Godden S., 2008. Colostrum management for dairy calves. Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract. 24, 19–39, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa....
 
6.
Golinelli L.P., Conte-Junior C.A., Paschoalin V.M.F., Silva J.T., 2011. Proteomic analysis of whey from bovine colostrum and mature milk. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. 54, 761–768, https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-....
 
7.
Gopal P.K., Gill H.S., 2000. Oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates in bovine milk and colostrum. Br. J. Nutr. 84, Suppl. 1, 69–74, https://doi.org/10.1017/S00071....
 
8.
Guilloteau P., Zabielski R., Blum J.W., 2009. Gastrointestinal tract and digestion in the young ruminant: ontogenesis, adaptations, consequences and manipulations. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 60, Suppl. 3, 37–46.
 
9.
Kashyap P., Farrugia G., 2011. Oxidative stress: key player in gastrointestinal complications of diabetes. Neurogastroenterol. Motil. 23, 111–114, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365....
 
10.
Kimberley F.C., Sivasankar B., Morgan B.P., 2007. Alternative roles for CD59. Mol. Immunol. 44, 73–81, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.moli....
 
11.
Le A., Barton L.D., Sanders J.T., Zhang Q., 2011. Exploration of bovine milk proteome in colostral and mature whey using an ion-exchange approach. J. Proteome Res. 10, 692–704, https://doi.org/10.1021/pr1008....
 
12.
Liu J., Wang X.P., Cho S., Lim B.K., Irwin D.M., Ryder O.A., Zhang Y.-P., Yu L., 2014. Evolutionary and functional novelty of pancreatic ribonuclease: a study of Musteloidea (order Carnivora). Sci. Rep. 4, 5070, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep05....
 
13.
Matsuhita M., Thiel S., Jensenius J.C., Terai I., Fujita T., 2000. Proteolytic activities of two types of mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease. J. Immunol. 165, 2637–2642, https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmun....
 
14.
Nemir M., Bhattacharyya D., Li X., Singh K., Mukherjeei A.B., Mukherjee B.B., 2000. targeted inhibition of osteopontin expression in the mammary gland causes abnormal morphogenesis and lactation deficiency. J. Biol Chem. 275, 969–976, https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.27....
 
15.
Nesargikar P., Spiller B., Chavez R., 2012. The complement system: history, pathways, cascade and inhibitors. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Immunol. 2, 103–111, https://doi.org/10.1556/EuJMI.....
 
16.
O'Donnell R., Holland J.W., Deeth H.C., Alewood P., 2004. Milk proteomics. Int. Dairy J. 14, 1013–1023, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idai....
 
17.
Pihlanto-Leppälä A., 2001. Bioactive peptides derived from bovine whey proteins: opioid and ACE-inhibitory peptides. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 11, 347–356, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-....
 
18.
Playford R.J., Macdonald C.E., Johnson W.S., 2000. Colostrum and milk-derived peptide growth factors for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 72, 5–14, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/7....
 
19.
Sanjabi S., Oh S.A., Li M.O., 2017. Regulation of the immune response by TGF-β: From conception to autoimmunity and infection. Cold Spring Harb. Persp. Biol. 9, a022236, https://doi.org/10.1101/cshper....
 
20.
Sassi S.O., Benner S.A., 2007. The resurrection of ribonucleases from mammals: from ecology to medicine. In: D.A. Liberles (Editor). Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction. Oxford University Press. Oxford (UK), pp. 208–224, https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof....
 
21.
Schack L., Lange A., Kelsen J., Agnholt J., Christensen B., Petersen T.E., Søre-nse E.S., 2009. Considerable variation in the concentration of osteopontin in human milk, bovine milk, and infant formulas. J. Dairy Sci. 92, 5378–5385, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
 
22.
Sun Y., Wang C., Sun X., Guo M., 2019. Comperative proteomics of whey and milk fat globule membrane proteins of Guanzhong goat and Holstein cow mature milk. J. Food Sci. 84, 244–253, https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3....
 
23.
Tacoma R., Fields J., Ebenstein D., Lam Y.-W., Greenwood S.L., 2016. Characterization of the bovine milk proteome in early-lactation Holstein and Jersey breeds of dairy cows. J. Proteomics 130, 200–210, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpro....
 
24.
Van Der Vliet A., Tuinstra T.J.R., Bast A., 1989. Modulation of oxidative stress in the gastrointestinal tract and effect on rat intestinal motility. Biochem. Pharmacol. 38, 2807–2818, https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2....
 
25.
Yamada M., Murakami K., Wallingford J.C., Yuki Y., 2002. Identification of low-abundance proteins of bovine colostral and mature milk using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by microsequencing and mass spectrometry. Electrophoresis 23, 1153–1160, https://doi.org/10.1002/1522-2...<1153::AID-ELPS1153>3.0.CO;2-Y.
 
26.
Yang Z., Tao T., Raftery M.J., Youssef P., Di Girolamo N., Geczy C.L., 2001. Proinflammatory properties of the human S100 protein S100A12. J. Leukocyte Biol. 69, 986–994
 
27.
Zhang L., Boeren S., Hageman A.J., van Hooijdonk T., Vervoort J., Hettinga K., 2015. Bovine milk proteome in the first 9 days: protein interactions in maturation of the immune and digestive system of the newborn. PLoS ONE 10, e0116710, https://doi.org/10.1371/journa....
 
28.
Zhang L., Wang J., Yang Y., Bu D., Li S., Zhou L., 2011. Comparative proteomic analysis of changes in the bovine whey proteome during the transition from colostrum to milk. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 24, 272–278, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2....
 
ISSN:1230-1388