Effect of ensiled tomato pomace on performance and antioxidant status in the peripartum dairy cow
More details
Hide details
Xinjiang Agricultural University, Collage of Grassland and Environmental Science, Urumqi, 830052, China
Xinjiang Tianshan Animal Husbandry Bio-engineering Co. LTD, Changji 831100, China
A. Yimamu   

Xinjiang Agricultural University, Collage of Grassland and Environmental Science, Urumqi, 830052, China
Publication date: 2020-06-30
J. Anim. Feed Sci. 2020;29(2):105–114
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of partial replacing whole crop maize silage with ensiled tomato pomace (ETP) on feed intake, digestibility, milk yield and composition, antioxidant status and immune response in dairy cows. Fifty pregnant Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 25 cows each, according to calving dates and body weights (BW). Animals from control group were fed total mixed ration (TMR) diet containing whole crop maize silage, while the experimental group was fed TMR diet with 10% replacement of crop maize silage with ETP silage (dry base). The measurements of blood biochemical and antioxidant, and immunity indices were carried out before calving, at calving, 7 and 14 days after it. Also 14 days after calving feed intake, digestibility, milk yield and composition were examined. It was shown that dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility increased when 10% of dietary maize silage was replaced with ETP. In animals fed experimental diet milk yield and composition were not altered, but the concentration of vitamins in milk significantly increased. Adding ETP to the diet numerically increased concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase. Improved antioxidant status and increased immunoglobulins A, G, M (IgA, IgG, IgM) before parturition were observed in experimental animals. So, it is suggested that dietary 10% replacement of maize silage with ETP had positive effect on milk vitamin contents, antioxidant and immune functions in the early lactating dairy cows.
We express our thanks to Xinjiang Agricultural University and all the staff of Xin Jiang Tianshan Animal Husbandry Bio-engineering Company for the use of their facilities and for their kind help when needed.
National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31472125)
Abdollahzadeh F., Pirmohammadi R., 2010. Effect of feeding ensiled mixed tomato and apple pomace on performance of holstein dairy cows. Slovak. J. Anim. Sci. 43, 31-35
Albanese D., Adiletta G., D′Acunto M., Cinquanta L., Di Matteo M., 2014. Tomato peel drying and carotenoids stability of the extracts. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 49, 2458–2463, https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.1....
AOAC International, 2000. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 17th Edition. Gaithersburg, MD (USA).
Bendich A., Gabriel E., Machlin L.J., 1986. Dietary vitamin E requirement for optimum immune responses in the rat. J. Nutr. 116, 675–681, https://doi.org/ 10.1093/jn/116.4.675.
Benzie I.F.F., Strain J.J., 1996. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (frap) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the frap assay. Anal. Biochem. 239, 70−76, https://doi.org/10.1006/abio.1....
Chew B.P., 1993. Role of carotenoids in the immune response. J. Dairy Sci. 76, 2804–2811, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
Chew B.P., Park J.S., 2004. Carotenoid action on the immune response. J. Nutr. 134, 257S−261S, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/134....
Czauderna M., Białek M., Białek A., Śliwiński B., Brzóska F., 2020. Chemical form of dietary selenium affects the fatty acids profile and oxidative stability of muscles of broilers supplemented with lycopene and oils. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 122, 1900132, https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.2....
Ebeid H., Gawad R.M.A., Mahmoud A.E.M., 2015. Influence of ration containing tomato pomace silage on performance of lactating buffaloes and milk quality. Asian-Austral. J. Anim. Sci. 10, 14−24, https://doi.org/10.3923/ajava.....
Fondevila M., Guada J.A., Gasa J., Castrillo C., 1994. Tomato pomace as a protein supplement for growing lambs. Small Ruminant Res. 13, 117−126, https://doi.org/10.1016/0921-4....
Fuentes E., Forero-Doria O., Carrasco G., Marican A., Santos L.S., Alarcon M., Palomo I., 2013. Effect of tomato industrial processing on phenolic profile and antiplatelet activity. Molecules 18, 11526–11536, https://doi.org/10.3390/molecu....
GB 5413.9-2010: Determination of Vitamins A, D, E in Foods for Infants and Young Children. National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People’s Republic of China. Beijing (China).
GB 5009.86-2016: Determination of ascorbic acid in food. National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People’s Republic of China. Beijing (China).
GB/T 13883-2008: Determination of selenium in feeds. National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People’s Republic of China. Beijing (China).
GB/T 13885-2017: Determination of the contents of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and zinc in feeds—Method using atomic absorption spectrometry. National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People’s Republic of China. Beijing (China).
GB/T 5009.83-2016: Determination of β-carotene in foods for infants and young children, milk and milk products. National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People’s Republic of China. Beijing (China).
Giovanelli G., Paradiso A., 2002. Stability of dried and intermediate moisture tomato pulp during storage. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 7277−7281, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0255....
Goff J.P., 2006. Major advances in our understanding of nutritional influences on bovine health. J. Dairy Sci. 89, 1292−1301, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.s0....
Hassan H.A., Edrees G.M., 2004. Therapeutic effect of lycopene-rich tomato juice on cardiac disorder in rats fed on fried food in oxidized frying oil. Egypt. J. Hosp. Med. 14, 115−126.
Hidiroglou M., Batra T.R., Ivan M., Markham F., 1995. Effects of supplemental vitamins E and C on the immune responses of calves. J. Dairy Sci. 78, 1578−1583, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
Hidiroglou N., Cave N., Atwall A.S., Farnworth E.R., Mcdowell L.R., 1992. Comparative vitamin E requirements and metabolism in livestock. Ann. Rech. Vet. 23, 337−359, https://hal.archives-ouvertes.....
Hogan J.S., Smith K.L., Weiss W.P., Todhunter D.A., Schockey W.L., 1990. Relationships among vitamin E, selenium, and bovine blood neutrophils. J. Dairy Sci. 73, 2372−2378, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
Jin L., Yan S., Shi B., Bao H., Gong J., Guo X. et al., 2014. Effects of vitamin A on the milk performance, antioxidant functions and immune functions of dairy cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 192, 15−23, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anif....
Keulen J.V., Young B.A., 1977. Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash as a natural marker in ruminant digestibility studies. J. Anim. Sci. 44, 282−287, https://doi.org/10.2527/jas197....
Loy S.L., Kns S., Hamid Jan J.M., 2013. Increase in maternal adiposity and poor lipid profile is associated with oxidative stress markers during pregnancy. Prev. Med. 57, S41−S44, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypme....
del V., Camara M., Torija M.E., 2006. Chemical characterization of tomato pomace. J. Sci. Food Agric. 86, 1232−1236, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2....
MOA (Ministry of Agriculture, China), 2004. Feeding Standard of Dairy Cattle (NY/T 34-2004). Beijing (China).
NRC (National Research Council), 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th Revised Edition. The National Academies Press. Washington, DC (USA), https://doi.org/10.17226/9825.
Omar H.A.A., Abdel-Magid S.S., 2015. Incorporation of dried tomato pomace in growing sheep rations. Glob. Vet. 14, 1−16, https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.....
Paglia D.E., Valentine W.N., 1967. Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 70, 158−169
Palozza P., Catalano A., Simone R.E., Mele M.C., Cittadini A., 2012. Effect of lycopene and tomato products on cholesterol metabolism. Ann. Nutr. Metab. 61, 126−134, https://doi.org/10.1159/000342....
Rahbarpur A., Taghizadeh A., Mehmannavaz Y., 2013. Determination of nutritive value of tomato pomace using in vitro gas production technique. Online J. Anim. Feed Res. 3, 20−22, http://ojafr.ir/main/attachmen....
Reddy P.G., Momll J.L., Minocha H., Stevenson J.S., 1987. Vitamin E is immunostimulatory in calves. J. Dairy Sci. 70, 993−999, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
Rozbicka-Wieczorek A.J., Szarpak E., Brzóska F., Śliwiński B., Kowalczyk J., Czauderna M., 2012. Dietary lycopenes, selenium compounds and fish oil affect the profile of fatty acids and oxidative stress in chicken breast muscle. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 21, 705–724, https://doi.org/10.22358/jafs/....
Sahin K., Ozercan R., Onderci M. et al., 2004. Lycopene supplementation prevents the development of spontaneous smooth muscle tumors of the oviduct in Japanese quail. Nutr. Cancer. 50, 181−189, https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327....
Sahin N., Sahin K., Onderci M., Karatepe M., Smith M. O., Kucuk O., 2006. Effects of dietary lycopene and vitamin E on egg prodcution, antioxidant status and cholesterol levels in Japanese quail. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 19, 224−230, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2....
Selim T., Berndtsson R., Persson M., 2013. Simulation of soil water and salinity distribution under surface drip irrigation. Irrig. Drain. 62, 352−362, https://doi.org/10.1002/ird.17....
So S., Cherdthong A., Uriyapongson S., 2019. Potential use of tomato pomace as ruminants diet − A review. Biosci. Res. 16, 1538−1548.
Spears J.W., 2000. Micronutrients and immune function in cattle. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 59, 587−594, https://doi.org/10.1017/S00296....
Stowe H.D., Herdt T.H., 1992. Clinical assessment of selenium status of livestock. J. Anim. Sci. 70, 3928−3933, https://doi.org/10.2527/1992.7....
Sundrum A., 2015. Metabolic disorders in the transition period indicate that the dairy cows to adapt is overstressed. Animals 5, 978–1020, https://doi.org/10.3390/ani504....
Śpitalniak-Bajerska K., Szumny A., Pogoda-Sewerniak K., Kupczyński R., 2020. Effects of n-3 fatty acids on growth, antioxidant status, and immunity of preweaned dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci. 103, 2864−2876, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Tanaka J., Fujiwara H., Torisu M., 1979. Vitamin E and immune response. I. Enhancement of helper T cell activity by dietary supplementation of vitamin E in mice. Immunology 38, 727−734, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/p....
Tengerdy R.P., 1989. Vitamin E, immune response, and disease resistance. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 570, 335−344, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749....
Tyssandier V., Feillet-Coudray C., Caris-Veyrat C. et al., 2004. Effect of tomato product consumption on the plasma status of antioxidant microconstituents and on the plasma total antioxidant capacity in healthy subjects. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 23, 148−156, https://doi.org/10.1080/073157....
Uchiyama M., Mihara M., 1978. Determination of malonaldehyde precursor in tissues by thiobarbituric acid test. Anal. Biochem. 86, 271−278, https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2....
Van Soest P.J., Robertson J.B., Lewis B.A., 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74, 3583–3597, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
Weiss W.P., Frobose D.L., Koch M.E., 1997. Wet tomato pomace ensiled with corn plants for dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 80, 2896−2900, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
Xinjiang Statistical Yearbook (in Chinese), 2017. Statistical Bureau of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Statistics Press. Beijing (China).
Diet supplemented with lycopene and selenized yeast change contents of fatty acids in the liver and femoral muscles of rabbits
Marian Czauderna, Małgorzata Białek, Agnieszka Białek, Monika Karpińska
Livestock Science
Changes in the content and intensity of oxidation of lipid compounds in the kidneys of lambs fed diets with rapeseed and fish oils – effect of antioxidant supplementation
M. Białek, M. Czauderna, K. Zaworski, M. Karpińska, M. Marounek
Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences
Tomato Processing By-Products
María Travieso, Evan de, Carlos Marcos, Eduarda Molina-Alcaide
Strategies to Increase the Value of Pomaces with Fermentation
Paulo Munekata, Rubén Domínguez, Mirian Pateiro, Asad Nawaz, Christophe Hano, Noman Walayat, José Lorenzo
Evaluation of dried tomato pomace as a non‐conventional feed: Its effect on growth, nutrients digestibility, digestive enzyme, blood chemistry and intestinal microbiota of growing quails
Mahmoud Alagawany, Mohamed El‐Saadony, Talaat El‐Rayes, Mahmoud Madkour, Anna Loschi, Cerbo Di, Fayiz Reda
Food and Energy Security
Membrane Engineering in the Circular Economy
K. Petrotos, K. Gerasopoulos