CC-BY 4.0

Changes in chemical composition of rapeseed meal during storage, influencing nutritional value of its protein and lipid fractions

Maritime University of Szczecin, Faculty of Economics and Transport Engineering, Henryka Pobożnego 11, 70-507 Szczecin, Poland
J. Anim. Feed Sci. 2017;26(2):157–164
Publish date: 2017-06-16
The aim of the study was to analyse the quality changes in rapeseed meal (RSM) in the presence of oxygen and water vapour at elevated temperature. The chemical composition of fresh and after storage (30 days at 40 °C and 80% relative humidity) samples of RSM was determined. In comparison with fresh samples significant differences in the meal after storage in the content of true protein (35.7 vs 37.5% DM), crude fat (6.8 vs 7.5% DM), crude fibre (11.5 vs 10.6% DM), methionine (7.7 vs 8.2 g · kg−1 DM), cysteine (8.2 vs 8.9 g · kg−1 DM) and arginine, histidine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, tannic acid and phytic phosphorus were observed. After storage, the content of butyric, caproic, caprylic and palmitoleic acids increased, while concentration of lauric, stearic and oleic acids decreased. Proportion of saturated fatty acids in total fatty acids raised (19.7 vs 14.3%) and that of unsaturated fatty acids declined (80.3 vs 85.7%). The storage had influence on acid and peroxide values of oil, increasing them to 20.9 mg KOH · g−1 and 27.08 meq · kg−1, respectively. No significant differences in the content of starch, sugar, some amino acids (including lysine) and polyunsaturated fatty acids in fresh and post-storage meal were noticed. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and ochratoxin A were not detected after storage. It can be concluded that storage conditions affect adversely the quality of RSM having the moisture content only slightly above the recommendation (12.7 vs 12.5%) and simultaneously changing significantly its protein and lipid profiles.
M. Bojanowska   
Maritime University of Szczecin, Faculty of Economics and Transport Engineering, Henryka Pobożnego 11, 70-507 Szczecin, Poland
1. Almeida F.N., Htoo J.K, Thomson J., Stein H.H., 2014. Effects of heat treatment on the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acid in canola meal fed to growing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci.Technol. 187, 44–52, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2013.09.009.
2. AOAC, 2000. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 17th Edition Gaithersburg, Md. (USA).
3. Balthrop J., Brand B., Cowie R.A., Danier J., De Boever J., de Jonge L., Jackson F., Makkar H.P.S., Piotrowski Ch., 2011. Quality Assurance for Animal Feed Analysis Laboratories. FAO Animal Production and Health Manual No. 14. FAO, Rome (Italy).
4. Bell J.M., 1995. Meal and by-product utilization in animal nutrition. In: D.S. Kimber, D.I. McGregor (Editors). Brassica Oilseeds: Production and Utilization. CAB International, Wallingford (UK),pp. 301–337.
5. BN-90/9160-42. Animal feeding stuffs – Determination of tannins in the seed of coarse-grained leguminous plants (in Polish).
6. Buraczewska L., Gdala J., Wasilewko J., Buraczewski S., 1998. Ileal digestibility in pigs of protein and amino acids of heat treated rapeseed feeds as affected by protein associated with the NDF fraction (in Polish). Rośl. Oleiste – Oilseed Crops XIX,175–186.
7. Degussa, 1998. Quantitative determination of tryptophan in compound feeds and feed ingredients by HPLC. Feedback, 1–11.
8. Dierick N.A., Decuypere J.A., 2002. Endogenous lipolysis in feedstuffs and compound feeds for pigs: effect of storage time and conditions and lipase and/or emulsifier addition. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 102, 53–70, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(02)00224-9.
9. EN ISO 660:1999+A1:2005. Animal and vegetable fats and oils – Determination of acid value and acidity.
10. FEDIOL, 2016 .
11. Feifel S., Lüscher H., Pendl R., 2000. State-of-the-art Food Analyses – fast and reliable quantification of fatty acids, reference methods. Büchi Information Bulletin 1.
12. Finot P.A., 1997. Effects of processing and storage on the nutritional value of food proteins. In: S. Damodaran, A. Paraf (Editors). Food Proteins and Their Applications. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York (USA).
13. Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute (Poland), 2016 .
14. ISO 6496:1999. Animal feeding stuffs - Determination of moisture and other volatile matter content.
15. ISO 3960:1998. Animal and vegetable oils and fats – Determination of peroxide value.
16. ISO 14718:1998. Animal feeding stuffs - Determination of aflatoxin B1 content of mixed feeding stuffs - Method using high-performance liquid chromatography.
17. Jensen S.K., Liu Y.-G., Eggum B.O., 1995. The influence of seed size and hull content on the composition and digestibility of rapeseed in rats. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 54, 9–19, https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(94)00762-X.
18. Korol W., Matyka S., 1988. Comparison of methods for the determination of phytic acid in grain and legumes seeds (in Polish). Bulletin of Feed Industry 27, 45.
19. Landry J., Delhaye S., Jones D.G., 1992. Determination of tryptophan in feedstuffs: comparison of two methods of hydrolysis prior to HPLC analysis. J. Sci. Food Agric. 58, 439–441, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740580321.
20. Leśmian-Kordas R., Jóźwiak Z., 1991. The research on the optimization of conditions of storage and carriage of rapeseed meal (in Polish). Sci. J. Marit. Univ. Szczecin 42, 37–46.
21. Magan N., Jenkins N.E., Howarth J., 1993. Lipolytic activity and degradation of rapeseed oil and rapeseed by spoilage fungi. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 19, 217–227, https:// doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(93)90079-V.
22. Mansour E.H., Dworschák E., Lugasi A., Gaál Ö., Barna É., Gergely A., 1993. Effect of processing on the antinutritive factors and nutritive value of rapeseed products. Food Chem. 47, 247–252, https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(93)90156-A.
23. Miyashita K., 2008. Polyunsaturated lipid oxidation in aqueous system. In: C.C. Akoh, D.B. Min (Editors). Food Lipids. Chemistry, Nutrition and Biochemistry. 3rd Edition. CRC Press, Bota Raton, FL (USA), https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420046649.ch13.
24. Naczk M., Amarowicz R., Sullivan A., Shahidi F., 1998. Current research developments on polyphenolics of rapeseed/canola: a review. Food Chem. 62, 489–502, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(97)00198-2.
25. Neff W.E., El-Agaimy M., 1996. Effect of linoleic acid position in triacylglycerols on their oxidative stability. Lebensm.-Wiss. Technol. - Food Sci Technol. 29, 772–775, https://doi.org/10.1006/fstl.1996.0121.
26. Nguyen C.V., Smulikowska S., Mieczkowska A., 2003. Effect of linseed and rapeseed or linseed and rapeseed oil on performance, slaughter yield and fatty acid deposition in edible parts of carcass in broiler chickens. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 12, 271–288, https://doi.org/10.22358/jafs/67703/2003.
27. Osek M., 2000. Influence of storage time and conditions on changes in lipid fractions of some rapeseeds products (in Polish). Rośl. Oleiste – Oilseed Crops XXI, 145–156.
28. Pastuszewska B., Jabłecki G., Buraczewska L., Dakowski P., Taciak M., Matyjek R., Ochtabińska A., 2003. The protein value of differently processed rapeseed solvent meal and cake assessed by in vitro methods and in tests with rats. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 106, 175–188, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(03)00005-1.
29. Perttilä S., Valaja J., Partanen K., Jalava T., Venäläinen E., 2002. Apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in protein feedstuffs and diet formulation based on total vs digestible lysine for poultry. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 98, 203–218, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(02)00031-7.
30. PN-R-64785:1994. Animal feeding stuffs – Determination of starch content by polarimetric method (in Polish).
31. PN-R-64833:1998. Animal feeding stuffs – Methods of ochratoxin A determination (in Polish).
32. Pustjens A.M., Schols H.A., Kabel M.A., Gruppen H., 2013. Characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides from rapeseed (Brassica napus) meal. Carbohyd. Polym. 98, 1650–1656, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.07.059.
33. Richards A., Wijesundera C., Salisbury P., 2008. Genotype and growing environment effects on the tocopherols and fatty acids of Brassica napus and B. juncea. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 85, 159–168, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-007-1181-y.
34. Sikorski Z.E., 2001. Chemical reactions in proteins in food systems. In: Z.E. Sikorski (Editor). Chemical and Functional Properties of Food Proteins. CRC Press, Bota Raton, FL (USA).
35. Thompson L.U., Serraino M.R., 1986. Effect of phytic acid reduction on rapeseed protein digestibility and amino acids absorption. J. Agric. Food Chem. 34, 468–469, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00069a023.
36. TIS (Transport Information Service) Germany, 2011. Cargo loss prevention information from German Marine Insurers .
37. Tripathi M.K., Mishra A.S., 2007. Glucosinolates in animal nutrition: A review. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 132, 1–27, https://doi. org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.03.003.
38. Wada S., Koizumi C., 1983. Influence of the position of unsaturated fatty acid esterified glycerol on the oxidation rate of triglyceride. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 60, 1105–1109, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02671335.
39. White N.D.G., Jayas D.S., 1989. Safe storage conditions and infestation potential of canola meal by fungi and insects. J. Stored Prod. Res. 25, 105–114, https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-474X(89)90020-9.
40. Wiąz M., Mroczyk W., Józefiak D., Rutkowski A., 2005. Composition of rapeseed cakes and meals manufactured under different technological conditions. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 14, Suppl. 1, 507–510, https://doi.org/10.22358/jafs/70718/2005.