Acidified milk for feeding dairy calves in tropical raising systems
More details
Hide details
University of Sao Paulo, College of Agriculture Luiz de Queiroz, Animal Science Department, Av. Padua Dias 11, 13418-900, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Publication date: 2020-09-30
Corresponding author
C. M. M. Bittar   

University of Sao Paulo, College of Agriculture Luiz de Queiroz, Animal Science Department, Av. Padua Dias 11, 13418-900, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil
J. Anim. Feed Sci. 2020;29(3):215-223
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of milk acidification in tropical climate conditions on dairy calves’ growth, health and selected blood metabolites. Thirty-two Holstein calves were blocked according to sex, birth date and weight, and distributed to the following treatments:1. refrigerated milk kept at 5 °C (RM) or 2. acidified milk (with added lactic acid to a pH of 4.2) kept at ambient temperature (ACM). After birth, calves were fed colostrum and from the second day received 6 l/day of RM or ACM heated to 38 °C until weaning at day 56. Calves were individually housed with free access to water and starter diet. Feed intake and health problems were monitored daily; calves were weighed and measured weekly. Blood samples were collected weekly to evaluate the levels of metabolites. Feed intake, body weight and daily gain did not differ between treatments, but heart girth and wither height was higher for animals fed RM. The faecal score was lower for RM group, however in calves fed ACM it also did not suggest a diarrheal process (1.98). In addition, the first case of diarrhoea in calves fed ACM was later than in calves fed RM (15.4 vs 8.6 days, respectively; P < 0.01). So, the acidification of milk is an adequate method of preserving milk in tropical ambient temperatures. It resulted in health benefits to calves, delaying the first case of diarrhoea.
The authors express their appreciation for the financial support to publication provided by the São Paulo Research Foundation (Fapesp 2020/12499/3).
Anderson N.G., 2008. Experiences with free-access acidified-milk feeding in Ontario. In: Proceedings of Annual Meeting of American Association of Bovine Practitioners. Charlotte, NC (USA), No. 41, pp. 12−324.
AOAC, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 15th Edition. Arlington, VA (USA).
Aust V., Knappstein K., Kunz H.J., Kaspar H., Wallmann J., Kaske M., 2012. Feeding untreated and pasteurized waste milk and bulk milk to calves: Effects on calf performance, health status and antibiotic resistance of faecal bacteria. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 97, 1091−1103, https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12....
Busanello M., Rossi R.S., Cassoli L.D., Pantoja J.C.F., Machado P.F., 2017. Estimation of prevalence and incidence of subclinical mastitis in a large population of Brazilian dairy herds. J. Dairy Sci. 100, 6545−36553, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20...
Chase C.C.L., Hurley D.J., Reber A.J., 2008. Neonatal immune development in the calf and its impact on vaccine response. Vet. Clin. N. Am. Food Anim. Pract. 24, 87−104, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa....
de Paula M.R., Oltramari C.E., Silva J.T., Gallo M.P.C., Mourão G.B., Bittar C.M.M., 2017. Intensive liquid feeding of dairy calves with a medium crude protein milk replacer: Effects on performance, rumen, and blood parameters. J. Dairy Sci. 100, 4448−4456, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Deng Y.F., Wang Y.J., Zou Y. et al., 2017. Influence of dairy by-product waste milk on the microbiomes of different gastrointestinal tract components in pre-weaned dairy calves. Sci. Rep. 7, 42689, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep42....
Fallon J.R., Harte F.J., 1988. Effect of normal or acidified milk replacer offered ad libitum on calf performance. Irish J. Agric. Food Res. 27, 123−130, https://jstor.org/stable/25556....
Gelsinger S.L., Heinrichs A.J., Jones C.M., 2016. A meta-analysis of the effects of preweaned calf nutrition and growth on first-lactation performance. J. Dairy Sci. 99, 6206−6214, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Godden S.M., Fetrow J.P., Feirtag J.M. et al., 2005. Economic analysis of feeding pasteurized nonsaleable milk versus conventional milk replacer to dairy calves. J. Am. Vet. Med. A. 9, 1547−1554, https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.....
Heinrichs J., Jones C., 2011. Composition and hygiene of colostrum on modern Pennsylvania dairy farms. Penn. State Dairy An. Sci. 171, 1−36
Izzo M.M., Kirkland P., Mohler V., Perkins N., Gunn A., House J., 2011. Prevalence of major enteric pathogens in Australian dairy calves with diarrhea. Aust. Vet. J. 89, 167−173, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751....
Kaneko J.J., 1997. Serum proteins and the dysproteinemias. In: J.J. Kaneko, J.W. Harvey, M.L. Bruss (Editors). Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. San Diego Academic Press. San Diego, CA (USA), pp.117−138, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0....
Kasari T.R., Naylor J.M., 1984. Metabolic acidosis without clinical signs of dehydration in young calves. Can. Vet. J. 25, 394−399.
Larson L.L., Owen F.G., Albright J.L., Appleman R.D., Lamb R.C., Muller L.D., 1977 Guidelines toward more uniformity in measuring and reporting calf experimental data. J. Dairy Sci. 60, 989−991, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
Lefier D., Grappin R., Pochet P., 1996. Determination of fat, protein, and lactose in raw milk by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and by analysis with a conventional filter-based milk analyzer. J. AOAC Int. 79, 711−717, https://doi.org/10.1093/jaoac/....
Li L., Qu J., Xin X., Yin S., Qu Y., 2019. Comparison of reconstituted, acidified reconstituted milk or acidified fresh milk on growth performance, diarrhea rate, and hematological parameters in preweaning dairy calves. Animals 9, 778, https://doi.org/10.3390/ani910....
Luca G.C., Reis B.F., 2001. Spectrophotometry of total proteins in bovine blood plasma by flow analysis (in Portuguese). Sci. Agric. 59, 251−256, https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-....
Moore D.A., Taylor J., Hartman M.L., Sischo W.M., 2009. Quality assessments of waste milk at a calf ranch. J. Dairy Sci. 92, 3503−3509, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Nes I.F., Yoon S.S., Diep D.B., 2007. Ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins) in lactic acid bacteria: a review. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 16, 675−690
NRC (National Research Council), 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. The National Academies Press. Washington, DC (USA), https://doi.org/10.17226/9825.
Payne J.M., Payne S., 1987. The Metabolic Profile Test. Oxford University Press. Oxford (UK).
Quigley J.D. III, Smith Z.P., Heitmann R.N., 1991. Changes in plasma volatile fatty acids in response to weaning and feed intake in young calves. J. Dairy Sci. 74, 258−263, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
Santos G., Bittar C.M.M., 2015. A survey of dairy calf management practices in some producing regions in Brazil. Rev. Bras. Zootec. 44, 361−370, https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-....
Stamey J.A., Janovick N.A., Kertz A.F., Drackley J.K., 2012. Influence of starter protein content on growth of dairy calves in an enhanced early nutrition program. J. Dairy Sci. 95, 3327−3336, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Suarez-Mena F.X., Hu W., Dennis T.S., Hill T.M., Schlotterbeck R.L., 2017. β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose concentrations in the blood of dairy calves as influenced by age, vaccination stress, weaning, and starter intake including evaluation of BHB and glucose markers of starter intake. J. Dairy Sci. 100, 2614−2624, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Sun Y., Li J., Meng Q., Wu D., Xu M., 2019. Effects of butyric acid supplementation of acidified milk on digestive function and weaning stress of cattle calves. Livest. Sci. 225, 78−84, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livs....
Todd C.G., Leslie K.E., Millman S.T., Bielmann V., Anderson N.G., Sargeant J.M., Devries T.J., 2017. Clinical trial on the effects of a free-access acidified milk replacer feeding program on the health and growth of dairy replacement heifers and veal calves. J. Dairy Sci. 100, 713−725, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Van Amburgh M., Drackley J.K., 2005. Current perspectives on the energy and protein requirements of the pre-weaned calf. In: P.C. Garnsworth (Editor). Calf and heifer rearing: principles of rearing the modern dairy heifer from calf to calving. Nottingham University Press. Nottingham (UK)
Van Soest P.J., Robertson J.B., Lewis B.A., 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74, 3583−3597, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
Weiss W.P., 1993. Predicting energy values of feeds. In: Symposium: Prevailing concepts in energy utilization by ruminants. J. Dairy Sci. 76, 1802−1811, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0...
Zhang R., Zhou M., Tu Y., Zhang N.F., Deng K.D., Ma T., Diao Q.Y., 2016. Effect of oral administration of probiotics on growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility and stress-related indicators in Holstein calves. J. Dairy Sci. 100, 33−38, https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12....
Zou Y., Wang Y., Deng Y., Cao Z., Li S., Wang J., 2017. Effects of feeding untreated, pasteurized and acidified waste milk and bunk tank milk on the performance, serum metabolic profiles, immunity, and intestinal development in Holstein calves. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 8, 53−64, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104...
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top