CC-BY 4.0

The effect of Mediterranean thyme (Thymbra spicata L. var. spicata) essential oil on fattening performance and ruminal parameters in lamb

E. Baytok 1,  
K. Kara 1  ,  
T. Aksu 2,  
S. Özkaya 3,  
N. Denek 4,  
A. Kamalak 5  ,  
D. A. Kaya 6,  
S. E. Önel 7,  
Erciyes University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases, 38280, Kayseri, Turkey
Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases, 65080, Van, Turkey
Süleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, 32260, Isparta, Turkey
Harran University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases, 63000, Şanlıurfa, Turkey
Sütçü İmam University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, 46100, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey
Mustafa Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, 31060, Hatay, Turkey
Mustafa Kemal University, Vocational School of Samandağ, Department of Plant and Animal Production, 31060, Hatay, Turkey
Erciyes University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, 38280, Kayseri, Turkey
J. Anim. Feed Sci. 2017;26(4):319–325
Publish date: 2017-11-28
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of Thymbra spicata L. var spicata (TS) essential oil (10 or 15 μl · kg−1 live weight (LW)) on growth performance (LW, LW gain, feed intake) and rumen parameters (volatile fatty acids (VFA)) and ammonia levels, and pH) in lambs. The experiment lasted 56 days, including 14 days of adaptation and 42 of experimental period. The TS essential oil was extracted from the leaves harvested at the beginning of plant flowering and contained: 66.86% carvacrol, 12.18% p-cymene, 10.73% γ-terpinene and 2.77% thymol. The addition of TS essential oil to concentrate feed did not affect final LW, LW gain, feed intake or feed conversion ratio (P > 0.05). Molar concentrations (mmol · l−1) of total VFA and acetic (A), butyric (B) and propionic (P) acids, and levels of pH and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) in rumen fluid were also not affected by TS essential oil inclusion (P > 0.05). However, the proportion of A and (A+B):P ratio in rumen fluid VFA increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing TS essential oil doses, whereas the P proportion decreased linearly (P = 0.008). So, it could be suggested that TS essential oil enhanced the concentration of selected VFA in rumen fluid through a positive effect on feed digestion in the rumen. In particular, the linear increase in A and (A+B):P ratio could have enhanced fibrolytic effect in the rumen ecosystem. It was concluded that different doses and longer terms of use of TS essential oil should be further investigated in in vivo studies.
K. Kara   
Erciyes University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases, 38280, Kayseri, Turkey
1. AOAC International, 2012. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 19th Edition. Gaithersburg, MD (USA).
2. Ali B., Al-Wabel N.A., Shams S., Ahamad A., Khan S.A., Anwar F., 2015. Essential oils used in aromatherapy: A systemic review. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 5, 601–611, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.007.
3. Bampidis V.A., Christodoulou V., Florou-Paneri P., Christaki E., Spais A.B., Chatzopoulou P.S., 2005. Effect of dietary dried oregano leaves supplementation on performance and carcass characteristics of growing lambs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 121, 285–295, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2005.02.002.
4. Başer K.H.C., 1995. Essential oils from aromatic plants which are used as herbal tea in Turkey. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of Flavours, Fragrances and Essential Oils. Istanbul (Turkey).
5. Başer K.H.C., 2002. Aromatic biodiversity among the flowering plant taxa of Turkey. Pure Appl. Chem. 74, 527–545, https://doi.org/10.1351/pac200274040527.
6. Başer K.H.C., Özek T., Tümen G., Sezik E., 1994. Essential oils of Turkish Origanum species, which are of a commercial importance.TAB Bult. 10, 28–30.
7. Baytok E., Kara K., Aksu T., Güçlü B.K., Denek N., Yörük M.A., Kaya D.A., Kamalak A., Akçay A., Önal S.E., 2013. Determining the impact of thyme (Thymbra spicata L.) essential oil on performance and rumen metabolites in ruminants by in vitro and in vivo techniques and evaluating this impact for environment. I. In vitro digestion, rumen fermentation and methane production of dairy and beef cattle rations. In: Proceeding of VIIth National Animal Nutrition Congress, Ankara (Turkey), pp. 274–283.
8. Benchaar C., Duynisveld J.L., Charmley E., 2006. Effects of monensin and increasing dose levels of a mixture of essential oil compounds on intake, digestion and growth performance of beef cattle. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 86, 91–96, https://doi.org/10.4141/A05-027.
9. Biricik H., Oral H.H., Taluğ A.M., Cengiz Ş.Ş., Koyuncu M., Dikmen S., 2016. The effects of carvacrol and/or thymol on the performance, blood and rumen parameters, and carcass traits of Merino sheep. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 40, 651–659, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.04.016.
10. Calo J.R., Crandall P.G., O’Bryan C.A., Ricke S.C., 2015. Essential oils as antimicrobials in food systems – A review. Food Control 54, 111–119, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.12.040.
11. Chaves A.V., Stanford K., Gibson L.L., McAllister T.A., Benchaar C., 2008. Effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde on intake, rumen fermentation, growth performance, and carcass characteristics of growing lambs. Anim. Feed Sci. Techol. 145, 396–408, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.04.016.
12. Erwin E.S., Marco G.J., Emery E.M., 1961. Volatile fatty acid analyses of blood and rumen fluid by gas chromatography. J. Dairy Sci. 44, 1768–1771, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(61)89956-6.
13. Franz C., Baser K.H.C., Windisch W., 2010. Essential oils and aromatic plants in animal feeding – a European perspective. A review. Flavour Frag. J. 25, 327–340, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1967.
14. Hancı S.S., Sahin S., Yılmaz L., 2003. Isolation of volatile oil from thyme (Thymbra spicata) by steam distillation. Nahr. – Food 47, 252–255, https://doi.org/10.1002/food.200390059.
15. İnan M., Kirpik M., Kaya D.A., Kirici S., 2011. Effect of harvest time on essential oil composition of Thymbra spicata L. growing in flora of Adıyaman. Adv. Environ. Biol. 5, 356–358.
16. Kara K., 2015. In vitro methane production and quality of corn silage treated with maleic acid. Ital. J. Anim. Sci. 14, 3994, https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2015.3994.
17. Kara K., Güçlü B.K., Baytok E, 2015. Comparison of nutrient composition and anti-methanogenic properties of different Rosaceae species. J. Anim Feed Sci. 24, 308–314, https://doi.org/10.22358/jafs/65613/2015.
18. Makkar H.P.S., Becker K., 1996. Nutrional value and antinutritional components of whole and ethanol extracted Moringa oleifera leaves. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 63, 211–228, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(96)01023-1.
19. Makkar H.P.S., Blümmel M., Becker K., 1995. Formation of complexes between polyvinyl pyrrolidones or polyethylene glycols and tannins, and their implication in gas production and true digestibility in vitro techniques. Br. J. Nutr. 73, 897–913, https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19950095.
20. NRC, 2007. Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids. The National Academies Press. Washington, DC (USA), https://doi.org/10.17226/11654.
21. Önenç S.S., 2008. Effects of some aromatic plants on in vitro rumen fermentation. PhD Thesis. Ege University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences. İzmir (Turkey).
22. Simitzis P.E., Deligeorgis S.G., Bizelis J.A., Dardamani A., Theodosiou I., Fegeros K., 2008. Effect of dietary oregano oil supplementation on lamb meat characteristics. Meat Sci. 79, 217–223, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.09.005.
23. Souza M.A., Detmann E., Paulino M.F., Sampaio C.B., Lazzarini I., Filho S.C.V., 2010. Intake, digestibility and rumen dynamics of neutral detergent fibre in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage and supplemented with nitrogen and/or starch. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 42, 1299–1310, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-010-9566-6.
24. Tümen G., Ermin N., Özek T., Kürkçüoglu M., Baser K.H.C., 1994. Composition of essential oils from two varieties of Thymbra spicata L. J. Essent. Oil Res. 6, 463–468, https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.1994.9698427.
25. Ünlü M., Vardar-Ünlü G., Vural N., Dönmez E., Özbaş Z.Y., 2009. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymbra spicata L. from Turkey. Nat. Prod. Res. 23, 572–579, https://doi.org/10.1080/14786410802312316.
26. Vakili A.R., Khorrami B., Danesh Mesgaran M., Parand E., 2013. The effects of thyme and cinnamon essential oils on performance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in Holstein calves consuming high concentrate diet. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 26, 935–944, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2012.12636.
27. Van Soest P.J., Robertson J.B., Lewis B.A., 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74, 3583–3597, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2.
28. Wang C.J., Wang S.P., Zhou H., 2009. Influences of flavomycin, ropadiar, and saponin on nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and methane emission from sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 148, 157–166, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.03.008.