ORIGINAL PAPER
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
The fermentation quality of total mixed ration silage (TMRS) prepared with dry apple pomace (DAP) or fresh apple pomace (FAP), as well as their effects on digestibility and rumen fermentation in feeding wethers were evaluated. Maize, wheat bran, soyabean meal, timothy and alfalfa hay were used to compose TMRS. Proportions of DAP and FAP in TMRS were 200 g/kg dry matter (DM) each, and the moisture content of TMRS was adjusted to 550 g/kg and ensiled for 60 days. The mixture of TMR with DAP without ensiling was used as a control diet, and experimental treatments were TMRS with DAP and TMRS with FAP. The TMRS with DAP and FAP were well fermented, with low pH and high lactic acid content. Ethanol was produced in both TMRS treatments and was significantly higher in that with FAP. Nitrogen retention and digestibility of DM, organic matter and crude protein were significantly lower in the treatments with DAP and FAP than in control one. Four hours after feeding TMRS with DAP and FAP, the rumen molar proportion of acetic acid was higher, while those of propionic acid and ammonia nitrogen content were lower, with more pronounced changes in the treatment with FAP. The results of this study suggest that the proportion of DAP or FAP in TMRS should not exceed 200 g/kg of diet DM.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The Authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
 
REFERENCES (27)
1.
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists), 1990. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 15th Edition. Arlington, VA (USA).
 
2.
Arthur H., Watson H., 1976. Thermal adaptation in yeast: growth temperatures, membrane lipid, and cytochrome composition of psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic yeasts. J. Bacteriol. 128, 56−68, https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.128....
 
3.
Barker S.B., Summerson W.H., 1941. The colorimetric determination of lactic acid in biological material. J. Biol. Chem. 138, 535−554, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-....
 
4.
Böttger C., Südekum K.H., 2018. Review: protein value of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in animal nutrition as affected by the ethanol production process. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 244, 11−17, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anif....
 
5.
Buchanan-Smith J.G., 1990. An investigation into palatability as a factor responsible for reduced intake of silage by sheep. Anim. Sci. 50, 253−260, https://doi.org/10.1017/S00033....
 
6.
Cai Y., Benno Y., Ogawa M., Kumai S., 1999. Effect of applying lactic acid bacteria isolated from forage crops on fermentation characteristics and aerobic deterioration of silage. J. Dairy Sci. 82, 520−526, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
 
7.
Dewar W.A., McDonald P., 1961. Determination of dry matter in silage by distillation with toluene. J. Sci. Food. Agric. 12, 790−795, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2....
 
8.
Emery R.S., Lewis T.R., Everett J.P., Lassiter C.A., 1959. Effect of ethanol on rumen fermentation. J. Dairy Sci. 42, 1182−1186, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
 
9.
Fang J., Cao Y., Matsuzaki M., Suzuki H., 2016. Effects of apple pomace proportion levels on the fermentation quality of total mixed ration silage and its digestibility, preference and ruminal fermentation in beef cows. Anim. Sci. J. 87, 217−223, https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12....
 
10.
Fang J., Xia G., Cao Y., 2020. Effects of replacing commercial material with apple pomace on the fermentation quality of total mixed ration silage and its digestibility, nitrogen balance and rumen fermentation in wethers. Grass. Sci. 66, 124−131, https://doi.org/10.1111/grs.12....
 
11.
Gallagher D., Parkera D., Allena D.J., Tsesmetzisa N., 2018. Dynamic bacterial and fungal microbiomes during sweet sorghum ensiling impact bioethanol production. Biores. Technol. 264, 163−173, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bior....
 
12.
Gasa J., Castrillo C., Guada J.A., Balcells J., 1992. Rumen digestion of ensiled apple pomace in sheep: effect of proportion in diet and source of nitrogen supplement. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 39, 193−207, https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8....
 
13.
Hino T., Miyazaki K., Kuroda S., Gotoh T., 1992. Effect of ethanol on the degradation of protein and amino acids by rumen microorganisms (in Japanese). Anim. Sci. Technol. (Jpn.) 63, 173−179, https://doi.org/10.2508/chikus....
 
14.
Limin K.Jr., Shaver R.D., Grant R.J., Schmidt R.J., 2018. Silage review: Interpretation of chemical, microbial, and organoleptic components of silages. J. Dairy Sci. 101, 4020−4033, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
 
15.
Magyar M., Sousa L.C., Jin M., Sarks C., Balan V., 2016. Conversion of apple pomace waste to ethanol at industrial relevant conditions. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 100, 7349−7358, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253....
 
16.
Miyazaki K., Hino T., Itabashi H., 1991. Possible factor altering volatile fatty acid production in the ethanol-fed rumen (in Japanese). Anim. Sci. Technol. (Jpn.) 62, 1000−1005, https://doi.org/10.2508/chikus....
 
17.
Nisarani K.S.G., Naglapura C.V., Vaibhav B.A., Samireddypalli A., Din T.P., Cadaba S.P., 2015. Study on evaluation of silage from pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruit residue as livestock feed. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 47, 557−561, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250....
 
18.
Pedroso A.F., Nussio L.G., Paziani S.F., Loures D.R.S., Igarasi M.S., Coelho R.M., Packer I.H., Horii J., Gomes L.H., 2005. Fermentation and epiphytic microflora dynamics in sugar cane silage. Sci. Agric. 62, 427−432, https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-....
 
19.
Perussello C.A., Zhang Z., Marzocchella A., Tiwari B.K., 2017. Valorization of apple pomace by extraction of valuable compounds. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 16, 776−796, https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4....
 
20.
Pradhan K., Hemken R.W., 1970. Utilization of ethanol and its effect on fatty acid patterns in ruminants. J. Dairy Sci. 53, 1739−1746, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
 
21.
Randby Å.T., Selmer-Olsen I., Bavere L., 1999. Effect of ethanol in feed on milk flavor and chemical composition. J. Dairy Sci. 82, 420−428, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
 
22.
Shalini R., Gupta D.K., 2010. Utilization of pomace from apple processing industries: a review. J. Food Sci. Technol. 47, 365−371, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197....
 
23.
Van Soest P.J., Robertson J.B., Lewis B.A., 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74, 3583−3597, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
 
24.
Weiss K., Kroschewski B., Auerbach H., 2016. Effects of air exposure, temperature and additives on fermentation characteristics, yeast count, aerobic stability and volatile organic compounds in corn silage. J. Dairy Sci. 99, 8053−8069, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
 
25.
Xu C., Suzuki H., Toyokawa K., 2001. Characteristics of ruminal fermentation of sheep fed tofu cake silage with ethanol. Jap. Anim. Sci. J. 72, 299−305, https://doi.org/10.2508/chikus....
 
26.
Xu C., Cai Y., Fukasawa M., Matsuyama H., Moriya N., 2008. The effect of replacing brewers’ grains with barley tea grounds in total mixed ration silage on feed intake, digestibility and ruminal fermentation in wethers. Anim Sci. J. 79, 575−581, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740....
 
27.
Yu X., van de Voort F.R., Li Z., Yue T., 2007. Proximate compositionof the apple seed and characterization of its oil. Int. J. Food Engine. 3, 12, https://doi.org/10.2202/1556-3....
 
ISSN:1230-1388