Influence of different levels of dried citrus pulp on in vitro ruminal fermentation kinetics of total mixed ration in goat rumen inocula
J. Hernández 1, 2,   R. Rojo 1,   A. Z. M. Salem 3, 4  
,   F. Mirzaei 5,   A. Gonzalez 2,   J. F. Vázquez 1,   O. D. Montañez 6,   F. A. Lucero 2
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Autonomous University of Mexico State, University Center of UAEM Temascaltepec, Temascaltepec 51300, Mexico
Autonomous University of Tamaulipas, Faculty of Engineering and Science Victoria City, Tamaulipas, Mexico
Autonomous University of Mexico State, Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnic Toluca 50000, Mexico State, Mexico
Alexandria University, Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby), Egypt
Deemed University, National Dairy Research Institute (N.D.R.I.), Department of Livestock Production and Management, Karnal, India
Guadalajara University, Department of Regional Development, University Center of the South, Guzmán City, Mexico
A. Z. M. Salem   

Autonomous University of Mexico State, Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnic Toluca 50000, Mexico State, Mexico; Alexandria University, Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby), Egypt
Publication date: 2012-09-14
J. Anim. Feed Sci. 2012;21(3):458–467
Inclusion of dried citrus pulp (DCP) at different levels: 0 (control), 10% (DCP10), 20 (DCP20), and 30% (DCP30) of the total mixed ration (TMR) was evaluated by in vitro gas production (GP), and ruminal fermentation patterns, in a completely randomized design. Rumen fluid was collected before the morning meal from 8 gestating goats (Boer×Saanen, body weight 3±2.3 kg). GP was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of incubation. Ruminal fermentation parameters such as 96 h partitioning factor (PF96), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), metabolizable energy (ME), short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and metabolizable energy (ME) were also estimated. Inclusion of DCP linearly increased (P<0.01) cumulative gas production at 24, 48, and 96 h after inoculation, as well as asymptotic gas production (b). Rations at 30% and 10% DCP had the highest values of gas production, whereas control and 20% DCP presented the same values (quadratic effect P<0.01). Lag phase (L) decreased linearly (P<0.001) with DCP addition. IVDMD and IVOMD increased linearly (P<0.01) with the inclusion of DCP in rations. The ration at 30% DCP (DCP30) had the greatest value of ME and SCFA, but no differences were observed in the PF96 among treatments. The data suggest that the DCP30 ration had the best impact on rumen gas production and IVDMD, IVOMD, ME, and SCFA.
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