How does bacterial endotoxin influence gonadoliberin/gonadotropins secretion and action?
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The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Instytucka 3, 05-110 Jabłonna, Poland
Publication date: 2016-11-25
Corresponding author
D. Tomaszewska-Zaremba   

The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Instytucka 3, 05-110 Jabłonna, Poland
J. Anim. Feed Sci. 2016;25(4):283-291
This review summarizes data concerning the mechanisms by which bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), inhibits gonadoliberin (GnRH)/ luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in mammals. LPS is a major component of Gram-negative bacteria cell walls and is released from the surface of replicated and dying Gram-negative bacteria into circulation. LPS is commonly used to induce immune/inflammatory challenge in animals. In this article the site of endotoxin action as well as LPS induced mediators are discussed. Hypothalamus seems to be a place where majority of the immune-neuroendocrine interactions occur, however the results of many research suggest that LPS may interfere with reproductive system at the pituitary level as well. Endotoxin may affect GnRH/LH secretion directly via toll-like receptors (TLR)4/TLR2 located both in the hypothalamus and pituitary or indirectly through the intermediates such as cytokines, catecholamines, prostaglandins or opioids.
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