Bone mineralization, geometry and strength in pigs growing from 56 to 115 day of life as affected by body fatness
S. Raj 1
More details
Hide details
The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Instytucka 3, 05-110 Jabłonna, Poland
Publication date: 2016-11-25
Corresponding author
G. Skiba   

The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Instytucka 3, 05-110 Jabłonna, Poland
J. Anim. Feed Sci. 2016;25(4):302-308
The aim of this study was to investigate a morphometry (bone mass), densitometry (mineral content, mineral density measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method), geometry (cortical wall thickness, cross sectional area, cortical index) and bone strength in weaned female piglets growing from 56 to 115 day of life and differed in body fatness understood as fat : lean mass ratio established using DXA. Correlations between measured properties and body fatness were also considered. Sixteen 56-day old cross-breed piglets were allotted into two experimental groups (8 animals in each): thin – T (fat : lean mass ratio <0.12) and fat – F (fat : lean mass ratio >0.12), based on fat : lean mass ratio in the body. Both groups of pigs were fed the same diet ad libitum (13.5 MJ · kg-1 metabolizable energy, 10.5 g of digestible lysine per kg). At 115 day of life the T animals had heavier bones (P < 0.01), higher bone mineral content (P < 0.01), higher bone mineral density (P < 0.05), higher cortical wall thickness (P < 0.01) and cross sectional area (P < 0.01) in comparison to F pigs. Bone strength and cortical index did not differ between groups. Body fatness was negatively correlated with: bone weight (r = −0.55, P = 0.001), bone mineral content (r = −0.52, P = 0.001), bone mineral density (r = −0.27, P = 0.029), cortical wall thickness (r = −0.38, P = 0.002) and cross sectional area (r = −0.57, P < 0.001). Correlations with bone strength and cortical index (relative proportion of cortical bone to total periosteal breadth at midshaft) were insignificant.
Aguirre L., Napoli N., Waters D., Qualls C., Villareal D.T., Armamento- Villareal R., 2014. Increasing adiposity is associated with higher adipokine levels and lower bone mineral density in obese older adults. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 99, 3290–3297, https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.201...
Beyer M., Jentsch W., Chudy A., 2003. Rostock Feed Evaluation System: Reference Numbers of Feed Value and Requirement on the Base of Net Energy. Plexus-Verlag. Miltenberg (Germany)
Bredella M.A., Torriani M., Ghomi R.H., Thomas B.J., Brick D.J., Gerweck A.V., Harrington L.M., Breggia A., Rosen C.J., Miller K.K., 2011. Determinants of bone mineral density in obese premenopausal women. Bone 48, 748–754, https://doi. org/10.1016/j.bone.2010.12.011
Clark E.M., Ness A.R., Tobias J.H., and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Study Team, 2006. Adipose tissue stimulates bone growth in prepubertal children. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 91, 2534–2541, https://doi.org/10.1210/ jc.2006-0332
Cole Z.A., Harvey N.C., Kim M., Ntani G., Robinson S.M., Inskip H.M., Godfrey K.M., Cooper C., Dennison E.M., 2012. Increased fat mass is associated with increased bone size but reduced volumetric density in pre pubertal children. Bone 50, 562–567, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone...
Crenshaw T.D., Peo E.R. Jr., Lewis A.J., Moser B.D., Olson D., 1981. Influence of age, sex and calcium and phosphorus levels on the mechanical properties of various bones in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 52, 1319–1329, https://doi.org/10.2527/jas198...
Dytfeld J., Ignaszak-Szczepaniak M., Gowin E., Michalak M., Horst- Sikorska W., 2011. Influence of lean and fat mass on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Arch. Gerontol. Geriatr. 53, e237–e242, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arch...
Farr J.N., Chen Z., Lisse J.R., Lohman T.G., Going S.B., 2010. Relationship of total body fat mass to weight-bearing bone volumetric density, geometry, and strength in young girls. Bone 46, 977–984, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone...
Goulding A., Taylor R.W., Jones I.E., McAuley K.A., Manning P.J., Williams S.M., 2000. Overweight and obese children have low bone mass and area for their weight. Int. J. Obesity 24, 627–632, https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo...
Hsu Y.-H., Venners S.A., Terwedow H.A. et al., 2006. Relation of body composition, fat mass, and serum lipids to osteoporotic fractures and bone mineral density in Chinese men and women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 83, 146–154
Janicka A., Wren T.A.L., Sanchez M.M., Dorey F., Kim P.S., Mittelman S.D., Gilsanz V., 2007. Fat mass is not beneficial to bone in adolescents and young adults. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 92, 143–147, https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.200...
Kirchengast S., Peterson B., Hauser G., Knogler W., 2001. Body composition characteristics are associated with the bone density of the proximal femur end in middle- and oldaged women and men. Maturitas 39, 133–145, https://doi. org/10.1016/S0378-5122(01)00205-5
Leonard M.B., Shults J., Wilson B.A., Tershakovec A.M., Zemel B.S., 2004. Obesity during childhood and adolescence augments bone mass and bone dimensions. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80, 514–523
Lorentzon M., Landin K., Mellström D., Ohlsson C., 2006. Leptin is a negative independent predictor of areal BMD and cortical bone size in young adult Swedish men. J. Bone Miner. Res. 21, 1871–1878, https://doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.0...
Mitchell A.D., Scholz A.M., Pursel V.G., 2001. Total body and regional measurements of bone mineral content and bone mineral density in pigs by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. J. Anim. Sci. 79, 2594–2604, https://doi.org/10.2527/2001.7...
Mosca L.N., Goldberg T.B.L., da Silva V.N., da Silva C.C., Kurokawa C.S., Rizzo A.C.B., Corrente J.E., 2014. Excess body fat negatively affects bone mass in adolescents. Nutrition 30, 847–852, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut....
Pollock N.K., Laing E.M., Baile C.A., Hamrick M.W., Hall D.B., Lewis R.D., 2007. Is adiposity advantageous for bone strength? A peripheral quantitative computed tomography study in late adolescent females. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 86, 1530–1538
Rademacher M., Sauer W.C., Jansman A.J.M., 2001. Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids in Pigs. Degussa-Hüls AG publication, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
Rajala M.W., Scherer P.E., 2003. Minireview: The adipocyte – at the crossroads of energy homeostasis, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Endocrinology 144, 3765–3773, https://doi. org/10.1210/en.2003-0580
Reid I.R., Plank L.D., Evans M.C., 1992. Fat mass is an important determinant of whole body bone density in premenopausal women but not in men. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 75, 779–782, https://doi.org/10.1210/jcem.7...
Rothney M.P., Brychta R.J., Schaefer E.V., Chen K.Y., Skarulis M.C., 2009. Body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry half-body scans in obese adults. Obesity 17, 1281–1286, https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.20...
Ryan W.F., Lynch P.B., O’Doherty J.V., 2011a. Compensatory effect of dietary phosphorus on performance of growing pigs and development of bone mineral density assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Livest. Sci. 138, 89–95, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livs...
Ryan W.F., Lynch P.B., O’Doherty J.V., 2011b. Effect of dietary phosphorus on the development of bone mineral density of pigs assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Livest. Sci. 137, 101–107, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livs...
Shaw D.T., Rozeboom D.W., Hill G.M., Orth M.W., Rosenstein D.S., Link J.E., 2006. Impact of supplement withdrawal and wheat middling inclusion on bone metabolism, bone strength, and the incidence of bone fractures occurring at slaughter in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 84, 1138–1146, https://doi.org/10.2527/2006.8...
Skiba G., Weremko D., Sobol M., Raj S., 2015. Bone mineralisation of weaned piglets fed a diet free of inorganic phosphorus and supplemented with phytase, as assessed by dual-energy Xray absorptiometry. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 69, 267–275, https://doi. org/10.1080/1745039X.2015.1054163
Sun K., Kusminski C.M., Scherer P.E., 2011. Adipose tissue remodeling and obesity. J. Clin. Invest. 121, 2094–2101, https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI458...
Varley P.F., Callan J.J., O’Dohert J.V., 2011a. Effect of dietary phosphorus and calcium level and phytase addition on performance, bone parameters, apparent nutrient digestibility, mineral and nitrogen utilization of weaner pigs and the subsequent effect on finisher pig bone parameters. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 165, 201–209, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anif...
Varley P.F., Sweeney T., Ryan M.T., O’Doherty J.V., 2011b. The effect of phosphorus restriction during the weaner-grower phase on compensatory growth, serum osteocalcin and bone mineralization in gilts. Livest. Sci. 135, 282–288, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livs...
Viljakainen H.T., Pekkinen M., Saarnio E., Karp H., Lamberg-Allardt C., Mäkitie O., 2011. Dual effect of adipose tissue on bone health during growth. Bone 48, 212–217, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone...
Weiler H.A., Janzen L., Green K., Grabowski J., Seshia M.M., Yuen K.C., 2000. Percent body fat and bone mass in healthy Canadian females 10 to 19 years of age. Bone 27, 203–207, https://doi.org/10.1016/S8756-...
Weremko D., Skiba G., Raj St., Fandrejewski H., 2013. The effects of feed and protein restriction between 90 and 118 days of age on performance, bone growth and mineralization of pigs reared to 168 days of age. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 182, 53–60, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anif...
Wetzsteon R.J., Petit M.A., Macdonald H.M., Hughes J.M., Beck T.J., McKay H.A., 2008. Bone structure and volumetric BMD in overweight children: a longitudinal study. J. Bone Miner. Res. 23, 1946–1953, https://doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.0...
Dietary Phytase and Lactic Acid-Treated Cereal Grains Differently Affected Calcium and Phosphorus Homeostasis from Intestinal Uptake to Systemic Metabolism in a Pig Model
Julia Vötterl, Jutamat Klinsoda, Qendrim Zebeli, Isabel Hennig-Pauka, Wolfgang Kandler, Barbara Metzler-Zebeli
Utilizing Variants Identified with Multiple Genome-Wide Association Study Methods Optimizes Genomic Selection for Growth Traits in Pigs
Ruifeng Zhang, Yi Zhang, Tongni Liu, Bo Jiang, Zhenyang Li, Youping Qu, Yaosheng Chen, Zhengcao Li
Factors influencing the bone mineral density in Duroc boars
Lingling Hu, Jinxin Lu, Liangliang Guo, Jiajian Tan, Haiqing Sun, Yuanfei Zhou, Yinghui Wu, Hongkui Wei, Siwen Jiang, Jian Peng
Porcine Health Management
The effect of caponization on bone homeostasis of crossbred roosters. I. Analysis of tibia bone mineralization, densitometric, osteometric, geometric and biomechanical properties
J. Wojciechowska-Puchałka, J. Calik, J. Krawczyk, J. Obrzut, E. Tomaszewska, S. Muszyński, D. Wojtysiak
The effect of caponization on bone homeostasis of crossbred roosters. I. Analysis of tibia bone mineralization, densitometric, osteometric, geometric and biomechanical properties
J. Wojciechowska-Puchałka, J. Calik, J. Krawczyk, J. Obrzut, E. Tomaszewska, S. Muszyński, D. Wojtysiak
Scientific Reports
Markers of bone turnover and biomechanical properties of the third metacarpal bone of growing pigs subjectet to the different dietary phosphorus and calcium content*
Monika Sobol, Grzegorz Skiba, Paweł Kowalczyk, Małgorzata Świątkiewicz, Eugeniusz Ryszard Grela
Annals of Animal Science
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top