An in vitro study was conducted to investigate the effects of soybean meal (SBM) treated with two commercially available quebracho (QUE) and chestnut wood (CWE) extracts, at three different concentrations (15, 30 and 60 g/kg SBM) on the extent and rate of gas and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. During the incubation, the gas production was measured at regular intervals from 0 to 48 h and the data were fitted with the Gompertz model to model gas production dynamics. After 24 h volumes of two syringes per substrate were analysed for individual SCFA contents. Treatment of SBM with CWE and QUE at the lowest concentration significantly increased (P < 0.05) gas production at 24 h of incubation (Gas24) and total SCFA production, but did not affect the proportions of individual SCFA. At higher concentrations (30 and 60 g/kg SBM), only the CWE significantly decreased (P < 0.05) Gas24, while both tannins significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the maximum fermentation rate. Both higher concentrations of CWE and QUE also did not affect total SCFA production, yet CWE significantly increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of acetic acid, while QUE tannins did not affect the proportions of individual SCFA. Obtained results suggest that the low doses of QUE and CWE have a stimulating effect on rumen microorganisms, enhancing the extent and rate of fermentation, while higher doses of CWE and QUE decrease the rate of fermentation; however, only CWE affects the fermentation pattern of rumen microorganisms by changing the proportions of individual SCFA.
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
Castro-Montoya J., Westreicher-Kristen E., Henke A., Diaby M., Susenbeth A., Dickhoefer U., 2018. In vitro microbial protein synthesis, ruminal degradation and post-ruminal digestibility of crude protein of dairy rations containing Quebracho tannin extract. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 102, e77–e86, https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12....
Cone J.W., van Gelder A.H., 1999. Influence of protein fermentation on gas production profiles. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 76, 251–264, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-....
Díaz Carrasco J.M., Cabral C., Redondo L.M., Pin Viso N.D., Colombatto D., Farber M.D., Fernández Miyakawa M.E., 2017. Impact of chestnut and quebracho tannins on rumen microbiota of bovines. BioMed Res. Int. 2017, 9610810, https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9....
DLG (Deutsche Landwirtschafts-Gesellschaft), 1997. Feed Value Table for Ruminants. 7th Revised and Extended Edition (in German: DLG Futterwerttabellen: Wiederkäuer). DLG-Verlag. Frankfurt (Germany).
El-Waziry A.M., Nasser M.E.A., Sallam S.M.A., 2005. Processing methods of soybean meal. 1. Effect of roasting and tannic acid treated-soybean meal on gas production and rumen fermentation in vitro. J. App. Sci. Res. 1, 313–320.
El-Waziry A.M., Nasser M.E.A., Sallam S.M.A., Abdallah A.L., Bueno I.C.S., 2007. Processing methods of soybean meal. 2. Effect of autoclaving and quebracho tannin treated-soybean meal on gas production and rumen fermentation in vitro. J. App. Sci. Res. 3, 17–24.
Frutos P., Hervás G., Giráldez F.J., Fernández Gutiérrez M., Mantecón Á.R., 2000. Digestive utilization of quebracho-treated soya bean meals in sheep. J. Agric. Sci. 134, 101–108, https://doi.org/10.1017/S00218...
Hassanat F., Benchaar C., 2013. Assessment of the effect of condensed (acacia and quebracho) and hydrolysable (chestnut and valonea) tannins on rumen fermentation and methane production in vitro. J. Sci. Food Agric. 93, 332–339, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.5....
Hervás G., Frutos P., Giráldez F.J., Mantecón Á.R., Álvarez Del Pino M.C., 2003. Effect of different doses of quebracho tannins extract on rumen fermentation in ewes. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 109, 65–78, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-....
Holdeman L.V., Cato E.P., Moore W.E.C., 1977. Ether extraction of volatile fatty acids. In: Anaerobe Laboratory Manual. 4th Edition. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Blacksburg, VA (USA).
Jayanegara A., Leiber F., Kreuzer M., 2012. Meta-analysis of the relationship between dietary tannin level and methane formation in ruminants from in vivo and in vitro experiments. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 96, 365–375, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439....
Jones G.A., McAllister T.A., Muir A.D., Cheng K.-J., 1994. Effects of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) condensed tannins on growth and proteolysis by four strains of ruminal bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60, 1374–1378, https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.60....
Khazaal K., Bosa J., Ørskov E.R., 1994. Assessment of phenolicsrelated antinutritive effects in Mediterranean browse: a comparison between the use of the two in vitro gas production technique with or without insoluble polyvinylpolypyrrolidone or nylon bag. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 49, 133–149, https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8....
Kos T., 2007. Influence of tannins on volatile fatty acids and methane production in in vitro fermentation in rumen fluid. Graduation Thesis. University of Ljubljana. Ljubljana (Slovenia), pp. 66.
Lavrenčič A., Levart A., 2021. In vitro dry matter and crude protein rumen degradation and abomasal digestibility of soybean meal treated with chestnut and quebracho wood extracts. Food Sci. Nutr. 9, 1034–1039, https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2....
Lavrenčič A., Stefanon B., Susmel P., 1997. An evaluation of the Gompertz model in degradability studies of forage chemical components. Anim. Sci. 64, 423–431, https://doi.org/10.1017/S13577....
Martínez T.F., McAllister T.A., Wang Y., Reuter T., 2006. Effects of tannic acid and quebracho tannins on in vitro ruminal fermentation of wheat and corn grain. J. Sci. Food Agric. 86, 1244–1256, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2....
McSweeney C.S., Palmer B., McNeill D.M., Krause D.O., 2001. Microbial interactions with tannins: nutritional consequences for ruminants. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 91, 83–93, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-....
Menke K.H., Steingass H., 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Anim. Res. Develop. 28, 7–55.
Mueller-Harvey I., 2006. Unravelling the conundrum of tannins in animal nutrition and health. J. Sci. Food Agric. 86, 2010 -2037, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2....
Pellikaan W.F., Stringano E., Leenaars J., Bongers D.J.G.M., van Laar-van Schuppen S., Plant J., Mueller-Harvey I., 2011. Evaluating effects of tannins on extent and rate of in vitro gas and CH4 production using an automated pressure evaluation system (APES). Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 166–167, 377–390, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anif....