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The nutritive value and phosphorus availability of yellow- and dark-seeded rapeseed cakes and the effects of phytase supplementation in broilers

S. Smulikowska 1  ,  
P. Konieczka 1,  
A. Piotrowska 2,  
The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, 05-110 Jabłonna, Poland
Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute, Oil Crop Department, Strzeszyńska 36, 60-479 Poznań, Poland
J. Anim. Feed Sci. 2012;21(4):677–695
Publication date: 2012-11-15
Three experiments on 242 Ross 308 broiler females were conducted to evaluate the nutritive value of expeller cakes cold-pressed from 3 yellow-seeded lines (YRC 041, 036, and 022) and black-seeded winter rape (BRC), and the effects of phytase supplementation. The total P content and phytase activity were similar in YRC and BRC and averaged 9.5 g/kg and 411 U/kg, respectively. Total glucosinolate contents in YRC were from 8.7 to 10.2 μmol/g dry matter (DM), in BRC, 12.6 μmol/g DM, in which progoitrin constituted 6% to 15% in YRC, and 35% in BRC. In the first experiment, the apparent metabolizable energy (AMEN) and nutrient digestibility of cakes were determined on 5 groups of 10, three-week-old chickens. Apparent protein digestibility did not differ between YRC and BRC and averaged 79.8%. Apparent crude fat digestibility and AMEN were higher in YRC in comparison with BRC due to the lower fat content in the latter, but AMEN averaged 8.95 MJ/kg of fat-free DM and did not differ between YRC and BRC. In the second experiment, a digestibility trial was conducted on 12 groups of 8 three-week-old chickens fed semisynthetic diets containing 45% cakes unsupplemented or supplemented with phytase (500 or 1000 U/kg). Phosphorus retention from YRC and BRC did not differ and averaged 39%. It increased due to phytase supplementation to 45.5% and 51.7%, on average. The third experiment was conducted on 8 groups of 12 chickens between 8-35 days of age fed low-phosphorus diets containing 30% cakes, unsupplemented or supplemented with 1000 U phytase/kg. Birds fed diets with BRC had a lower feed conversion ratio and higher thyroid weight in comparison with YRC-fed birds. Phytase supplementation increased feed intake (P<0.01), body weight gain (P<0.01) and tibia ultimate strength (P<0.01). In the last two experiments, the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the ileal contents was not affected by the treatments, but in the caecal contents it increased (P<0.01) due to phytase supplementation. The results of the digestibility trials and measurements of SCFA in ileal and caecal digesta do not point to great improvement in the utilization of YRC nutrients in comparison with BRC in broilers, however, some results obtained with YRC 041 were better than with the remaining cakes. The low alkenyl glucosinolate contents in YRC cakes favours their use in broiler feeds.
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