Influence of soil contamination before and after ensiling on mineral composition of grass silages, feed intake and carry-over to body tissue of goats
S. D. Martens 1  
,   Alina Majewska-Pinda 1, 2,   A. Benkmann 3, 4,   J. Zentek 5,   M. Spolders 4,   A. Simon 3,   H. Schafft 4,   O. Steinhöfel 1
More details
Hide details
Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology, Department of Animal Husbandry, 04886 Köllitsch, Germany
Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Management, 51-631 Wrocław, Poland
Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Faculty of Life Sciences, 10115 Berlin, Germany
Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), 10589 Berlin, Germany
Freie Universität Berlin, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Animal Nutrition, 14195 Berlin, Germany
S. D. Martens   

Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology, Department of Animal Husbandry, 04886 Köllitsch, Germany
Publication date: 2018-12-12
J. Anim. Feed Sci. 2018;27(4):307–316
(Fe) is ubiquitous in the environment and has possible impact on quality and safety of feed and food due to the fact that it can be transferred from soil to animal feed and further to the products of animal origin. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of contamination of forage with soil differing in Fe concentration on Fe solubility, mineral composition and quality of grass silages. Furthermore, the effect of feeding these silages on feed intake, performance, trace element absorbability and carry-over into edible tissues was tested in young goats. Two ensiling experiments revealed that treating grass without or with different levels and types of soil before ensiling did not affect fermentation parameters of silages. Nevertheless, the addition of soil caused a highly significant increase of crude ash and trace elements contents in forage and silages. During ensiling, the in vitro solubility of Fe increased on average 5 times. Also, the aluminium content was the best indicator of soil contamination in forages. In a feeding trial with growing goats, feed intake and live weight gain were decreased in the group fed grass ensiled with the soil in contrast to the control group and animals receiving feed with soil added just before feeding. Fe concentration was highest in the duodenal tissue of kids fed the forage contaminated with soil before ensiling (184 vs 88–80 mg Fe/kg DM in the other two treatments), which might be also an indicator of Fe regulating properties. Fe concentration in the liver increased likewise. In conclusion, data indicate that ingesting ensiled soil impairs animal performance.
Commission of the European Communities, 2009. Commission Regulation (EC) No 152/2009 of 27 January 2009 laying down the methods of sampling and analysis for the official control of feed. Off. J. EU L 54/1, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/lega....
Davidson T., Ke Q., Costa M., 2015. Selected molecular mechanisms of metal toxicity and carcinogenicity. In: G.F. Nordberg, B.A. Fowler, M. Nordberg (Editors). Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals (Fourth Edition). Academic Press (an imprint of Elsevier). Cambridge, MA (USA), pp. 173–196, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0....
DLG (Deutsche Landwirtschafts-Gesellschaft), 2004. Evaluation of Roughage. Part A: Key for the evaluation of fresh forage, silage and hay by sensory evaluation (in German). DLG-Verlag GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany).
DLG (Deutsche Landwirtschafts-Gesellschaft), 2006. Evaluation of Roughage. Part B: Key for the evaluation of fermentation quality of forage silages based on chemical analysis (in German). DLG-Verlag GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany).
EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP), 2016. Safety and efficacy of iron compounds (E1) as feed additives for all animal species: ferrous carbonate; ferric chloride, hexahydrate; ferrous fumarate; ferrous sulphate, heptahydrate; ferrous sulphate, monohydrate; ferrous chelate of amino acids, hydrate; ferrous chelate of glycine, hydrate, based on a dossier submitted by FEFANA asbl. EFSA J. 14, 4396, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa....
Enculescu M., Metzendorf C., Sparla R., Hahnel M., Bode J., Muckenthaler M.U., Legewie S., 2017. Modelling systemic iron regulation during dietary iron overload and acute inflammation: role of hepcidin-independent mechanisms. PLoS Comput. Biol. 13, e1005322, https://doi.org/10.1371/journa....
Ender F., Dishington I.W., Helgebostad A., 1971. Calcium balance studies in dairy cows under experimental induction and prevention of hypocalcaemic paresis puerperalis. Z. Tierphysiol. Tierernähr. Futtermittelkd. 28, 233–256, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439....
European Union, 2003. Commission Regulation (EC) No 1334/2003 of 25 July 2003 amending the conditions for authorisation of a number of additives in feedingstuffs belonging to the group of trace elements. Off. J. L 187, 11–15.
Flachowsky G., Hennig A., Löhnert H.-J., Grün M., 1976. Excessive oral administration of iron to sheep. 1. Digestibility of rations, results of fattening and carcass yields (in German). Arch. Anim. Nutr. 26, 765–771, https://doi.org/10.1080/174503....
Galy B., Ferring-Appel D., Becker C., Gretz N., Gröne H.-J., Schümann K., Hentze M.W., 2013. Iron regulatory proteins control a mucosal block to intestinal iron absorption. Cell Rep. 3, 844–857, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celr....
Ganz T., 2003. Hepcidin, a key regulator of iron metabolism and mediator of anemia of inflammation. Blood 102, 783–788, https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-....
GfE, 1995. Energy evaluation for ruminants (in German). Proc. Soc. Nutr. Physiol. 4, 121–123.
GfE, 2001. Recommendations for the Supply of Energy and Nutrients to Dairy Cows and Growing Cattle (in German). DLG-Verlag GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany).
GfE, 2003. Recommendations for the Supply of Energy and Nutrients to Goats. DLG-Verlag GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany).
Grün M., Anke M., Hennig A., Seffner W., Partschefeld M., Flachowsky G., Groppel B., 1978. Excessive iron administration to sheep. 2. The effect on the iron, copper, zinc and manganese level in different organs (in German). Arch. Anim. Nutr. 28, 341–347, https://doi.org/10.1080/174503....
Hansen S.L., Ashwell M.S., Moeser A.J., Fry R.S., Knutson M.D., Spears J.W., 2010. High dietary iron reduces transporters involved in iron and manganese metabolism and increases intestinal permeability in calves. J. Dairy Sci. 93, 656–665, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Hansen S.L., Spears J.W., 2009. Bioaccessibility of iron from soil is increased by silage fermentation. J. Dairy Sci. 92, 2896–2905, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Healy W.B., 1972. In vitro studies on the effects of soil on elements in ruminal, “duodenal”, and ileal liquors from sheep. N. Z. J. Agric. Res. 15, 289–305, https://doi.org/10.1080/002882....
Honig H., 1990. Evaluation of aerobic stability. In: S. Lindgren, K. Lunden Petterson (Editors). Proceedings of the EUROBAC Conference, Uppsala, 1986 Grovfoder. Grass Forage Rep. 3, 76–82.
Kaiser E., Weiss K., 2007. Nitrate content in green forage – importance for fermentation quality and ensiling technological measures (in German). Übers. Tierernährg. 35, 13–30.
Kirchgessner M., Roth F.X., Schwarz F.J., Stangl G.I., 2008. Animal Nutrition (in German). DLG-Verlag GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany).
Lamand M., Lab C., Lafarge C., Montel G., 1979. Influence of silage contamination by soil upon trace elements availability in sheep. Ann. Rech. Vet. 10, 571–573.
NRC (National Research Council), 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th Revised Edition. The National Academies Press. Washington, DC (USA), https://doi.org/10.17226/9825.
Pahlow G., Muck R.E., Driehuis F., Oude Elferink S.J.W.H., Spoelstra S.F., 2003. Microbiology of ensiling. In: D.R. Buxton, R.E. Muck, J.H. Harrison (Editors). Silage Science and Technology. American Society of Agronomy, Inc., Crop Science Society of America, Inc., Soil Science Society of America, Inc. Madison, WI, (USA), pp. 31–93.
Ponka P., Tenenbein M., Eaton J.W., 2015. Iron. In: G.F. Nordberg, B.A. Fowler, M. Nordberg (Editors). Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals (Fourth Edition). Academic Press (an imprint of Elsevier). Cambridge, MA (USA), pp. 879–902, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0....
Schonewille J.Th., Yu S., Beynen A.C., 1995. High iron intake depresses hepatic copper content in goats. Vet. Quart. 17, 14–17, https://doi.org/10.1080/016521....
Standish J.F., Ammerman C.B., Simpson C.F., Neal F.C., Palmer A.Z., 1969. Influence of graded levels of dietary iron, as ferrous sulfate, on performance and tissue mineral composition of steers. J. Anim. Sci. 29, 496–503, https://doi.org/10.2527/jas196....
Steinhöfel O., Willnat J., Giehler J., Zeyner A., 2016. Differences in sulphur and iron content of feeds from saxon dairy farms in the past 15 years depending on location and feed type (in German). In: S. Martens, I. Heber, G. Riehl, O. Steinhöfel (Editors). More Milk from Saxon Grass and Native Protein Feeds (in German). Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology (LfULG). Dresden (Germany), pp. 122–126, https://publikationen.sachsen.....
Suttle N., 2010. Mineral Nutrition of Livestock. 4th Edition. CABI. Wallingford (UK), https://doi.org/10.1079/978184....
VDLUFA, 1976. VDLUFA Book of Methods Volume III. The Chemical Analysis of Feedstuff. 3rd Edition. VDLUFA-Verlag, Darmstadt (Germany).
VDLUFA, 1997. Determination of HCl insoluble ash. In: Association of German Agricultural Analytic and Research Institutes (VDLUFA). VDLUFA Book of Methods Volume III. The Chemical Analysis of Feedstuff. 4th Supplement. VDLUFAVerlag, Darmstadt (Germany).
Whitehead D.C., 2000. Micronutrient cations: iron, manganese, zinc, copper and cobalt. In: D.C. Whitehead (Editor). Nutrient Elements in Grassland: Soil-Plant-Animal Relationships. CABI. Wallingford, (UK), pp. 220–254, https://doi.org/10.1079/978085....
Minerals and potentially toxic elements in corn silage from tropical and subtropical Brazil
Antonio Motta, Eloá Araujo, Martin Broadley, Scott Young, Julierme Barbosa, Stephen Prior, Patrick Schmidt
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia