Dried apple peel powder decreases microbial expansion during storage of beef, pork and turkey, and protects against carcinogen production during heat processing of ground beef
More details
Hide details
NIS Labs, 1437 Esplanade, Klamath Falls, OR 97601, USA
Oregon State University, 203 Pharmacy Building, 1601 SW Jefferson Ave., Corvallis, OR 97331-3507, USA
Publication date: 2016-05-19
Corresponding author
G. S. Jensen   

NIS Labs, 1437 Esplanade, Klamath Falls, OR 97601, USA
J. Anim. Feed Sci. 2016;25(2):167-173
Protection of the quality of foods such as ground meat, without increased use of antibiotics, is of growing importance. Environmental microbes such as bacteria and yeast are introduced into meat during butchering and processing. Due to the increased surface area of ground meat, the microbial load is higher than in cuts of meat. The presence of non-pathogenic environmental microbes contributes to meat spoilage, including formation of potentially harmful breakdown products. Addition of antibiotics is undesired in light of the increasing microbial resistance linked to their use, and the associated implications for human and veterinary health, and cost-efficient, natural methods for reducing microbial growth prior to delivery to consumers is needed. This study examined the effects of whole dried apple peel powder (DAPP) on microbial growth during cold storage of ground meat, and tested effects on carcinogen levels after grilling. Microbial growth during cold storage, mimicking shelf-life duration, in three types of ground meat (beef, pork, turkey) was tested by kneading DAPP into the ground meat, allowing 10 days cold storage, followed by testing of aerobic, coliform and yeast colony forming units. The neurotoxin norharman in beef patties after grilling was tested by LC-MS/MS. DAPP mixed into ground meat reduced microbial growth during cold storage. DAPP applied to meat patties in a marinade prior to grilling significantly reduced norharman levels (P < 0.05). The results show promise for DAPP as a natural food additive to increase food quality during storage and cooking.
Cheng K.-W., Wu Q., Zheng Z.P., Peng X., Simon J.E., Chen F., Wang M., 2007. Inhibitory effect of fruit extracts on the formation of heterocyclic amines. J. Agr. Food Chem. 55, 10359–10365.
Davies J., Davies D., 2010. Origins and evolution of antibiotic resistance. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 74, 417–433.
Denis M.C., Furtos A., Dudonné S., Montoudis A., Garofalo C., Desjardins Y., Delvin E., Levy E., 2013. Apple peel polyphenols and their beneficial actions on oxidative stress and inflammation. PLoS ONE 8, e53725, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053725.
Esmaeili M.H., Movahedi M., Faraji A., Haghdoost-Yazdi H., 2012. Intracerebral injection of low amounts of norharman induces moderate Parkinsonism-like behavioral symptoms in rat. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 34, 489–494.
Food and Drug Administration; Department of Health and Human Services, 2011. Summary Report on Antimicrobials Sold or Distributed for Use in Food-Producing Animals. Accessed from:http://www.fda.gov/downloads/F....
Ganjian H., Nikokar I., Tieshayar A., Mostafaei A., Amirmozadari N., Kiani S., 2012. Effects of salt stress on the antimicrobial drug resistance and protein profile of Staphylococcus aureus. Jundishapur J. Microbiol. 5, 328–331.
Herraiz T., 2004. Relative exposure to beta-carbolines norharman and harman from foods and tobacco smoke. Food Addit. Contam. 21, 1041–1050.
Ismail S.A.S., Deak T., Abd El-Rahman H.A., Yassien M.A.M., Beuchat L.R., 2000. Presence and changes in populations of yeasts on raw and processed poultry products stored at refrigeration temperature. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 62, 113–121.
Jensen G.S., Attridge V.L., Benson K.F., Beaman J.L., Carter S.G., Ager D., 2014. Consumption of dried apple peel powder increases joint function and range of motion. J. Med. Food 17, 1204–1213.
Juneja V.K., Bari M.L., Inatsu Y., Kawamoto S., Friedman M., 2009. Thermal destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in sous-vide cooked ground beef as affected by tea leaf and apple skin powders. J. Food Protect. 72, 860–865.
Karaman S., Tütem E., Başkan K.S., Apak R., 2013. Comparison of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of peel and flesh of some apple varieties. J. Sci. Food Agric. 93, 867–875.
Kuhn W., Müller T., Große H., Dierks T., Rommelspacher H., 1995. Plasma levels of the β-carbolines harman and norharman in Parkinson’s disease. Acta Neurol. Scand. 92, 451–454.
McDermott P.F., Zhao S., Wagner D.D., Simjee S., Walker R.D., White D.G., 2002. The food safety perspective of antibiotic resistance. Anim. Biotechnol. 13, 71–84.
McGhie T.K., Hudault S., Lunken R.C.M., Christeller J.T., 2012. Apple peels, from seven cultivars, have lipase-inhibitory activity and contain numerous ursenoic acids as identified by LC-ESIQTOF-HRMS. J. Agr. Food Chem. 60, 482–491.
McMahon M.A.S., Xu J., Moore J.E., Blair I.S., McDowell D.A., 2007. Environmental stress and antibiotic resistance in food-related pathogens. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73, 211–217.
Mild R.M., Joens L.A., Friedman M., Olsen C.W., McHugh T.H., Law B., Ravishankar S., 2011. Antimicrobial edible apple films inactivate antibiotic resistant and susceptible jejuni strains on chicken breast. J. Food Sci. 76, M163–M168.
Natale D., Gibis M., Rodriguez-Estrada M.T., Weiss J., 2014. Inhibitory effect of liposomal solutions of grape seed extract on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines. J. Agr. Food Chem. 62, 279–287.
Osada K., Hoshina S., Nakamura S., Sugano M., 2000. Cholesterol oxidation in meat products and its regulation by supplementation of sodium nitrite and apple polyphenol before processing. J. Agr. Food Chem. 48, 3823–3829.
Platt K.L., Edenharder R., Aderhold S., Muckel E., Glatt H., 2010. Fruits and vegetables protect against the genotoxicity of heterocyclic aromatic amines activated by human xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes expressed in immortal mammalian cells. Mutat. Res. – Gen. Tox. Environ. Mutagen. 703, 90–98.
Ravishankar S., Zhu L., Olsen C.W., McHugh T.H., Friedman M., 2009. Edible apple film wraps containing plant antimicrobials inactivate foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry products. J. Food Sci. 74, M440–M445.
Rounds L., Havens C.M., Feinstein Y., Friedman M., Ravishankar S., 2013. Concentration-dependent inhibition of O157:H7 and heterocyclic amines in heated ground beef patties by apple and olive extracts, onion powder and clove bud oil. Meat Sci. 94, 461–467.
Sekhon-Loodu S., Warnakulasuriya S.N., Rupasinghe H.P., Shahidi F., 2013. Antioxidant ability of fractionated apple peel phenolics to inhibit fish oil oxidation. Food Chem. 140, 189–196.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine, 2012. Guidance for Industry: The Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals. Accessed from: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/A....
Vasantha Rupasinghe H.P., Kathirvel P., Huber G.M., 2011. Ultrasonication-assisted solvent extraction of quercetin glycosides from ‘Idared’ apple peels. Molecules 16, 9783–9791.
Vieira A.R., Collignon P., Aarestrup F.M., McEwen S.A., Hendriksen R.S., Hald T., Wegener H.C., 2011. Association between antimicrobial resistance in isolates from food animals and blood stream isolates from humans in Europe: an ecological study. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 8, 1295–1301.
Walsh C., Fanning S., 2008. Antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens - a cause for concern? Curr. Drug Targets 9, 808–815.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top