A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effect of adding tomato waste to the diet of laying hens on their performance, egg quality, and blood parameters. A total of 22 articles were selected from five scientific databases such as Scopus, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and Directory of Open Access Journals. R software version 4.2.0, with supporting libraries, including lme4 and lsmeans (least-squares means test), was used for modelling and statistical analysis. The results of meta-analysis showed that the addition of tomato waste to laying hen rations significantly increased feed intake (P < 0.01) and tended to correlate with a quadratic pattern of hen-day egg production (HDEP) (P < 0.061) and egg mass (P < 0.075); however, eggshell strength decreased significantly (P < 0.01). Our findings also demonstrated a significant effect on egg-yolk colour, as assessed by a quadratic pattern (P < 0.01). The lycopene content in egg yolk increased significantly (P < 0.05). Tomato waste supplementation had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on total triglyceride and cholesterol levels in blood serum, which followed a quadratic pattern. This meta-analysis has confirmed that feeding tomato waste to laying hens exerts positive effects on animal performance and egg quality.
The first author would like to thank the National Research and Innovation Agency, Indonesia, for funding the study through the “Postdoctoral Program”, contract number 64/II/HK/2022.
The Authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
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