Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) contain multiple active ingredients, such as polyphenols, flavonoids, polysaccharides, due to which CHMs have many biological properties for example antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-lipase. CHMs can promote intramuscular fat deposition, increase the content of fatty acids and free amino acids in pork, which increases the nutritional value and health-promoting properties of meat. However, there are still some problems with the application of CHMs in pig production to improve meat quality. Firstly, there are many active ingredients, and their identification and study on their interactions are necessary. Secondly, the presence of harmful ingredients limits CHMs popularization and application. This review summarizes the current applications of CHMs in pig production in order to increase meat quality, and compares their effects on meat quality, which provides a theoretical screen for effective CHMs and their combinations. In brief, it is necessary to distinguish and find CHMs that have positive effects on meat quality and growth performance.
This research was supported by the Agricultural competitive industry discipline team-building project of Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences (202118TD), Guangdong Modern Agroindustry Technology Research System (2019KJ115, 2020KJ115), Talent Project of the Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences (R2017PYJG001), National Natural Science Foundation of China (31802103), Provincial Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Promotion and Agricultural Resources and Ecological Environmental Protection Construction Project (2021KJ266), Guangzhou Municipal Science and Technology Project (201707020007), Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation, China (2020A1515010591).
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
Aaslyng M.D., Meinert L., 2017. Meat flavour in pork and beef – from animal to meal. Meat Sci. 132, 112–117,
Ahmed S.T., Mun H.S., Islam M.M., Ko S.Y., Yang C.J., 2016. Effects of dietary natural and fermented herb combination on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality in grower-finisher pigs. Meat Sci. 122, 7–15,
Bi J., Zhang H., Lu J., Lei W., 2016. Nobiletin ameliorates isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in aging rats. Mol. Med. Rep. 14, 5408–5414,
Chang J.J., Hsu M.J., Huang H.P., Chung D.J., Chang Y.C., Wang C.J., 2013. Mulberry anthocyanins inhibit oleic acid induced lipid accumulation by reduction of lipogenesis and promotion of hepatic lipid clearance. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61, 6069–6076,
Chelh I., Gatellier P., Santé-Lhoutellier V., 2007. Characterisation of fluorescent Schiff bases formed during oxidation of pig myofibrils. Meat Sci. 76, 210–215,
Chen D., Li W., Du M., Wu M., Cao B., 2015. Sequencing and characterization of divergent marbling levels in the beef cattle (Longissimus dorsi muscle) transcriptome. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 28, 158–165,
Chen J., Li W.C., Gu X.L., 2017. Optimized extraction, preliminary characterization, and in vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. Med. Sci. Monit. 23, 1783–1791,
Chen Y., Huang J., Hu J., Yan R., Ma X., 2019. Comparative study on the phytochemical profiles and cellular antioxidant activity of phenolics extracted from barley malts processed under different roasting temperatures. Food Funct. 10, 2176-2185,
Chen Y.J., Kim I.H., Cho J.H., Yoo J.S., Wang Q., Wang Y., Huang Y., 2008. Evaluation of dietary L-carnitine or garlic powder on growth performance, dry matter and nitrogen digestibilities, blood profiles and meat quality in finishing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 141, 141–152,
Chen Z., Xie Y., Luo J., Chen T., Xi Q., Zhang Y., Sun J., 2021. Dietary supplementation with Moringa oleifera and mulberry leaf affects pork quality from finishing pigs. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 105, 72–79,
Cheng C., Liu Z., Zhou Y., Wei H., Zhang X., Xia M., Deng Z., Zou Y., Jiang S., Peng J., 2017. Effect of oregano essential oil supplementation to a reduced-protein, amino acidsupplemented diet on meat quality, fatty acid composition, and oxidative stability of Longissimus thoracis muscle in growing-finishing pigs. Meat Sci. 133, 103–109,
Cheng K., Yu C., Li Z., Li S., Yan E., Song Z., Zhang H., Zhang L., Wang T., 2020. Resveratrol improves meat quality, muscular antioxidant capacity, lipid metabolism and fiber type composition of intrauterine growth retarded pigs. Meat Sci. 170, 108237,
Corominas J., Ramayo-Caldas Y., Puig-Oliveras A., Estellé J., Castelló A., Alves E., Pena R.N., Ballester M., Folch J.M., 2013. Analysis of porcine adipose tissue transcriptome reveals differences in de novo fatty acid synthesis in pigs with divergent muscle fatty acid composition. BMC Genomics 14, 843,
Dang D.X., Kim Y.M., Kim I.H., 2020. Effects of a root extract from Achyranthes japonica Nakai on the growth performance, blood profile, fecal microbial community, fecal gas emission, and meat quality of finishing pigs. Livest. Sci. 239, 104160,
Dihal A.A., van der Woude H., Hendriksen P.J.M. et al., 2008. Transcriptome and proteome profiling of colon mucosa from quercetin fed F344 rats point to tumor preventive mechanisms, increased mitochondrial fatty acid degradation and decreased glycolysis. Proteomics 8, 45–61,
Fan L., Peng Y., Wu D., Hu J., Shi X.E., Yang G., Li X., 2020. Morus nigra L. leaves improve the meat quality in finishing pigs. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 104, 1904–1911,
Faustman C., Sun Q., Mancini R., Suman S.P., 2010. Myoglobin and lipid oxidation interactions: mechanistic bases and control. Meat Sci. 86, 86–94,
Feng X., Lyu Y., Wu Z., Fang Y., Xu H., Zhao P., Xu Y., Feng H., 2014. Fructus ligustri lucidi ethanol extract improves bone mineral density and properties through modulating calcium absorptionrelated gene expression in kidney and duodenum of growing rats. Calcif. Tissue Int. 94, 433–441,
Forte C., Ranucci D., Beghelli D., Branciari R., Acuti G., Todini L., Cavallucci C., Trabalza-Marinucci M., 2017. Dietary integration with oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil improves growth rate and oxidative status in outdoor-reared, but not indoor-reared, pigs. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 101, e352–e361,
Gao Z., Zhang C., Tian W., Liu K., Hou R., Yue C., Wu Y., Wang D., Liu J., Hu Y., Yang Y., 2017. The antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects comparison of Chinese angelica polysaccharide (CAP) and selenizing CAP (sCAP) in CCl4 induced hepatic injury mice. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 97, 46–54,
Gong A.G.W., Duan R., Wang H.Y., Kong X.P., Dong T.T.X., Tsim K.W.K., Chan K., 2018. Evaluation of the pharmaceutical properties and value of Astragali radix. Medicines 5, 46,
Grela E.R., Świątkiewicz M., Florek M., Wojtaszewska I., 2020. Impact of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) seeds in fattener diets on pig performance and carcass traits and fatty acid profile and cholesterol of meat, backfat and liver. Livest. Sci. 239, 104180,
Hamedi S., Forouzanfar F., Rakhshandeh H., Arian A., 2019. Hypnotic effect of Portulaca oleracea L. on pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice. Curr. Drug Discov. Technol. 16, 198–203,
Hamill R.M., McBryan J., McGee C., Mullen A.M., Sweeney T., Talbot A., Cairns M.T., Davey G.C., 2012. Functional analysis of muscle gene expression profiles associated with tenderness and intramuscular fat content in pork. Meat Sci. 92, 440–450,
Hao S., Xiao Y., Lin Y., Mo Z., Chen Y., Peng X., Xiang C., Li Y., Li W., 2016. Chlorogenic acid-enriched extract from Eucommia ulmoides leaves inhibits hepatic lipid accumulation through regulation of cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells. Pharm. Biol. 54, 251–259,
Harris E.S.J., Cao S., Littlefield B.A. et al., 2011. Heavy metal and pesticide content in commonly prescribed individual raw Chinese herbal medicines. Sci. Total Environ. 409, 4297–4305,
He H., Lu Y.H., 2013. Comparison of inhibitory activities and mechanisms of five mulberry plant bioactive components against α-glucosidase. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61, 8110–8119,
He L.H., Chen G.S., Quan Q.X., Liu M.Z., Yang G., Yuan T.J., 2019. Effects of adding mulberry leaf powder in diets on the quality and amino acid content in muscle of pigs. J. Gansu Agric. Univ. 2019(1), 16–23,
Hocquette J.F., Gondret F., Baéza E., Médale F., Jurie C., Pethick D.W., 2010. Intramuscular fat content in meat-producing animals: development, genetic and nutritional control, and identification of putative markers. Animal 4, 303–319,
Holden P.J., McKean J., Franzenburg E., 1999. Botanicals for pigs – garlic. Iowa State Univ. Anim. Indust. Rep. 1(1).
Hu G.Y., Cao X.Y., Cao R.L., Liu H.D., Duan Y.N., Wang B.H., 2018a. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine additives on fatty acid and cholesterol content in pork of different pig breeds. Swine Prod. 1, 65–68,
Hu S., Dou X., Zhang L., Xie Y., Yang S., Yang M., 2018b. Rapid detection of aflatoxin B1 in medicinal materials of radix and rhizome by gold immunochromatographic assay. Toxicon 150, 144–150,
Huang Y.C., Tsay H.J., Lu M.K., Lin C.H., Yeh C.W., Liu H.K., Shiao Y.J., 2017. Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides ameliorates obesity, hepatic steatosis, neuroinflammation and cognition impairment without affecting amyloid deposition in metabolically stressed APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, 2746,
Hughes J.M., Oiseth S.K., Purslow P.P., Warner R.D., 2014. A structural approach to understanding the interactions between colour, water-holding capacity and tenderness. Meat Sci. 98, 520–532,
Isabel B., Cordero G., Olivares A., Daza A., Lopez-Bote C.J., 2014. Differential response of Iberian and lean pig crossbreeds to dietary linoleic acid administration. Span. J. Agric. Res. 12, 419–426,
Janz J.A.M., Morel P.C.H., Wilkinson B.H.P., Purchas R.W., 2007. Preliminary investigation of the effects of low-level dietary inclusion of fragrant essential oils and oleoresins on pig performance and pork quality. Meat Sci. 75, 350–355,
Kang S.N., Chu G.M., Song Y.M., Jin S.K., Hwang I.H., Kim I.S., 2012. The effects of replacement of antibiotics with by-products of oriental medicinal plants on growth performance and meat qualities in fattening pigs. Anim. Sci. J. 83, 245–251,
Kim B.K., Hwang E.G., Jung D.J., Ha J.J., Oh D.Y., Choi C.B., 2014. Effects of kaolinite (macsumsuk) and herb mixtures on the quality and physicochemical properties of pork. Korean J. Food Sci. Anim. Resour. 34, 395–402,
Kong D., Li Y., Bai M., Deng Y., Liang G., Wu, H., 2017. A comparative study of the dynamic accumulation of polyphenol components and the changes in their antioxidant activities in diploid and tetraploid Lonicera japonica. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 112, 87–96,
Kong X., Wu G., Yin Y., 2011. Roles of phytochemicals in amino acid nutrition. Front. Biosci. Scholar 13, 372–384,
Kowalska G., 2020. Pesticide residues in some Polish herbs. Agriculture 10, 154,
Lan R.X., Park J.W., Lee D.W., Kim I.H., 2017. Effects of Astragalus membranaceus, Codonopsis pilosula and allicin mixture on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, faecal microbial shedding, immune response and meat quality in finishing pigs. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 101, 1122–1129,
Lee S.D., Kim H.Y., Song Y.M., Jung H.J., Ji S.Y., Jang H.D., Ryu J.W., Park J.C., Moon H.K., Kim I.C., 2009. The effect of Eucommia ulmoides leaf supplementation on the growth performance, blood and meat quality parameters in growing and finishing pigs. Anim. Sci. J. 80, 41–45,
Lee Y.H., Kim Y.S., Song M., Lee M., Park J., Kim H., 2015. A herbal formula HT048, Citrus unshiu and Crataegus pinnatifida, prevents obesity by inhibiting adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and HFD-induced obese rats. Molecules 20, 9656–9670,
Leong J., Morel P.C.H., Purchas R.W., Wilkinson B.H.P., 2011. Effects of dietary components including garlic on concentrations of skatole and indole in subcutaneous fat of female pigs. Meat Sci. 88, 45–50,
Li H., Zhao J., Deng W., Li K., Liu H., 2020. Effects of chlorogenic acid-enriched extract from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaf on growth performance and quality and oxidative status of meat in finishing pigs fed diets containing fresh or oxidized corn oil. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 104, 1116–1125,
Li R., Hu G.L., Liu M., Hou G.F., Peng W., Long S.Y., Huang X.G., 2014. Effects of adding Chinese herbal medicine in diet on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of fattening pigs. Chin. Anim. Husb. Vet. Med. 2014(2), 96–100,
Lim D.W., Lee Y., Kim Y.T., 2014. Preventive effects of Citrus unshiu peel extracts on bone and lipid metabolism in OVX rats. Molecules 19, 783–794,
Lin F.H., Luo P.J., Liang M.D., Xie X.Y., Ouyang H.X., Li G.H., Wu X.J., 2017. Analysis of Chinese medicinal herbs for poisonous properties. J. Huizhou Univ. 2017(3), 56–60,
Lin Z., Ye L., Li Z., Huang X., Lu Z., Yang Y., Xing H., Bai J., Ying Z., 2020. Chinese herb feed additives improved the growth performance, meat quality, and nutrient digestibility parameters of pigs. Anim. Models Exp. Med. 3, 47–54,
Listrat A., Lebret B., Louveau I., Astruc T., Bonnet M., Lefaucheur L., Picard B., Bugeon J., 2016. How muscle structure and composition influence meat and flesh quality. Sci. World J. 2016, 3182746,
Liu W., Lv X., Huang W., Yao W., Gao X., 2018. Characterization and hypoglycemic effect of a neutral polysaccharide extracted from the residue of Codonopsis Pilosula. Carbohydr. Polym. 197, 215–226,
Liu W.C., Pi S.H., Kim I.H., 2016. Effects of Scutellaria baicalensis and Lonicera japonica extract mixture supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles and meat quality in finishing pigs. Ital. J. Anim. Sci. 15, 446–452,
Liu Y., Li Y., Peng Y., He J., Xiao D., Chen C., Li F., Huang R., Yin Y., 2019a. Dietary mulberry leaf powder affects growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality in finishing pigs. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 103, 1934–1945,
Liu Y., Wang W., Sun M., Ma B., Pang L., Du Y., Dong X., Yin X., Ni J., 2019b. Polygonum multiflorum-induced liver injury: clinical characteristics, risk factors, material basis, action mechanism and current challenges. Front. Pharmacol. 10, 1467,
Long C.M., 2015. Effects of cane leaves of lonicera (Lonicera macranthoides) and chlorogenic acid on meat quality of fattening pigs. MSc Thesis. Hunan Agricultural University. Hunan (China),
Luo Q., Li N., Zheng Z., Chen L., Mu S., Chen L., Liu Z., Yan J., Sun C., 2020. Dietary cinnamaldehyde supplementation improves the growth performance, oxidative stability, immune function, and meat quality in finishing pigs. Livest. Sci. 240, 104221,
Madak-Erdogan Z., Gong P., Zhao Y.C. et al., 2016. Dietary licorice root supplementation reduces diet-induced weight gain, lipid deposition, and hepatic steatosis in ovariectomized mice without stimulating reproductive tissues and mammary gland. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 60, 369–380,
Nan G., Meng X., Song N., Liu Z., Liu Y., Li Y., Yang G., Zheng S., 2021. Uptake and distribution characteristic and health risk assessment of heavy metal(loid)s in Platycodon Grandiflorum (Jacq.) A.DC. with growth from a medicinal herb garden of Xi’an, China. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 199, 2770–2778,
Ozyigit I.I., Yalcin B., Turan S., Saracoglu I.A., Karadeniz S., Yalcin I.E., Demir G., 2018. Investigation of heavy metal level and mineral nutrient status in widely used medicinal plants’ leaves in Turkey: Insights into health implications. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 182, 387–406,
Panea B., Ripoll G., 2019. Plant-derived extracts feed-addition and packaging type influence consumer sensory perception of pork. Nutrients 11, 2652,
Reis R.J.S., Xu L., Lee H. et al., 2011. Modulation of lipid biosynthesis contributes to stress resistance and longevity of C. elegans mutants. Aging 3, 125–147,
Rey A.I., De Cara A., Segura J.F., Martí P., Hechavarría T., Calvo L., 2021. Dietary oleuropein extract supplementation and its combination with α-tocopheryl acetate and selenium modifies the free fatty acid profile of pork and improves its stability. J. Sci. Food Agric. 101, 2337–2344,
Rincón-Cervera M.Á., Valenzuela R., Hernandez-Rodas M.C., Barrera C., Espinosa A., Marambio M., Valenzuela A., 2016. Vegetable oils rich in alpha linolenic acid increment hepatic n-3 LCPUFA, modulating the fatty acid metabolism and antioxidant response in rats. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids 111, 25–35,
Rodrigues E.L., Marcelino G., Silva G.T., Figueiredo P.S., Garcez W.S., Corsino J., Guimarães R.C.A., Freitas K.C., 2019. Nutraceutical and medicinal potential of the Morus species in metabolic dysfunctions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, 301,
Rossi R., Pastorelli G., Cannata S., Tavaniello S., Maiorano G., Corino C., 2013. Effect of long term dietary supplementation with plant extract on carcass characteristics meat quality and oxidative stability in pork. Meat Sci. 95, 542–548,
Rossi R., Ratti S., Pastorelli G., Crotti A., Corino C., 2014. The effect of dietary vitamin E and verbascoside on meat quality and oxidative stability of Longissimus Dorsi muscle in mediumheavy pigs. Food Res. Int. 65, Part A, 88–94,
Rossi R., Stella S., Ratti S., Maghin F., Tirloni E., Corino C., 2017. Effects of antioxidant mixtures in the diet of finishing pigs on the oxidative status and shelf life of longissimus dorsi muscle packaged under modified atmosphere. J. Anim. Sci. 95, 4986–4997,
Shan C.-H., Guo J., Sun X. et al., 2018. Effects of fermented Chinese herbal medicines on milk performance and immune function in late-lactation cows under heat stress conditions. J. Anim. Sci. 96, 4444–4457,
Shao F., Gu L., Chen H., Liu R., Huang H., Ren G., 2016. Comparation of hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida fruit in high-fat emulsioninduced hyperlipidemia rats. Pharmacogn. Mag. 12, 64–69,
Shen X.L., Li A.P., Yao M., Xia X.L., 2021. Influence of compound Chinese herbal medicine additive on meat quality of growing finishing pigs. Acta Ecol. Anim. Domastic 42, 37–42,
Shuang J., Deli G., Ma Q., Bayin M., Niu X., 2001. Influence of licorice root extract by-product on pigs’ fattening and content of muscular free amino acids in compound additive. J. Inner Mongolia Agric. Univ. 22, 75–79,
Simitzis P.E., Symeon G.K., Charismiadou M.A., Bizelis J.A., Deligeorgis S.G., 2010. The effects of dietary oregano oil supplementation on pig meat characteristics. Meat Sci. 84, 670–676,
Singh A., Zhao K., 2017. Treatment of insomnia with traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 135, 97–115,
Singh S., Dubey V., Meena A., Siddiqui L., Maurya A.K., Luqman S., 2018. Rutin restricts hydrogen peroxide-induced alterations by up-regulating the redox-system: An in vitro, in vivo and in silico study. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 835, 115–125,
Song C., Xu Y., Lu Y., 2020. Use of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F for immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: progress anfuture prospects. J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B 21, 280–290,
Tian S.H., Cao H.Z., Xu Q., Fan M., Lu C.L., 2009. Effects of compound Chinese herbal medicine additives on production performance and meat quality of finishing pigs. Heilongjiang Anim. Sci. Vet. Med. 2009(14), 68–69,
Ting A., Chow Y., Tan W., 2013. Microbial and heavy metal contamination in commonly consumed traditional Chinese herbal medicines. J. Tradit. Chin. Med. 33, 119–124,
Toldrá F., Flores M., Aristoy M., 1995. Enzyme generation of free amino acids and its nutritional significance in processed pork meats. Dev. Food Sci. 37, 1303–1322,
Tong Q., 2016. Effects of tea dust and Chinese herbal medicine on the growth of pigs, meat and diarrhea properties. MSc Thesis. Hunan Agricultural University. Hunan (China),
Tsuduki T., Kikuchi I., Kimura T., Nakagawa K., Miyazawa T., 2013. Intake of mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin prevents diet-induced obesity through increases in adiponectin in mice. Food Chem. 139, 16–23,
Wang H.J., Jiang H., Zhou T.Z., Zhen Z.G., 2013. Effects of Chinese herbal compound additives on the quality of poached pork. Chin. Feed 22, 26–28,
Wang L., Sun J., Yi Q., Wang X., Ju X., 2012a. Protective effect of polyphenols extract of adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) on hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress in rats. Molecules 17, 8886–8897,
Wang S., Hu Y., Tan W., Wu X., Chen R., Cao J., Chen M., Wang Y., 2012b. Compatibility art of traditional Chinese medicine: From the perspective of herb pairs. J. Ethnopharmacol. 143, 412–423,
Wang Y., Xie Q., Sun S., Huang B., Zhang Y., Xu Y., Zhang S., Xiang H., 2018b. Probiotics-fermented Massa Medicata Fermentata ameliorates weaning stress in piglets related to improving intestinal homeostasis. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 102, 10713–10727,
Wang Z., Wang H., Wang H., Li Q., Li Y., 2019. Heavy metal pollution and potential health risks of commercially available Chinese herbal medicines. Sci. Total Environ. 653, 748–757,
Wang Z.Y., Duan Y.H., Li F.N., Yang B.C., Zhang J.X., Hou S.Z., 2017. Dietary supplementation with Lonicera macranthoides leaf powder enhances growth performance and muscle growth of Chinese Tibetan pigs. Livest. Sci. 206, 1–8,
Wang Z.Y., Li J.Q., Dong X., Duan L., 2018a. Effects of adding Chinese herbal medicine into a diet on growth performance, meat quality and muscle fiber characteristics of fattening pigs. Chin. Feed 4, 55–59,
Warriss P.D., 1982. The relationship between pH45 and drip in pig muscle. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 17, 573–578,
Warshafsky S., Kamer R.S., Sivak S.L., 1993. Effect of garlic on total serum cholesterol. Ann. Intern. Med. 119, 599–605,
Waszkiewicz-Robak B., Szterk A., Rogalski M., Rambuszek M., Kruk M., Rokowska E., 2015. Nutritional value of raw pork depending on the fat type contents in pigs feed. Acta Sci. Pol. Technol. Aliment. 14, 153–163,
Wei X.L., Yang B.L., Feng X.Y., Huang Y.R., Liu F.F., Lou Y.X., Xiao C.M., Yao T., Cao L., 2019. The effect of natural plant feed on the growth performance, blood characteristics and meat quality of finishing pigs. Chin. Feed 2019(15), 72–75,
Wen L., Guo X., Liu R.H., You L., Abbasi A.M., Fu X., 2015. Phenolic contents and cellular antioxidant activity of Chinese hawthorn “Crataegus pinnatifida”. Food Chem. 186, 54–62,
Włoch A., Kapusta I., Bielecki K., Oszmiański J., Kleszczyńska H., 2013. Activity of hawthorn leaf and bark extracts in relation to biological membrane. J. Membr. Biol. 246, 545–556,
Wood J.D., Lambe N.R., Walling G.A., Whitney H., Jagger S., Fullarton P.J., Bayntun J., Hallett K., Bünger L., 2013. Effects of low protein diets on pigs with a lean genotype. 1. Carcass composition measured by dissection and muscle fatty acid composition. Meat Sci. 95, 123–128,
Wood J.D., Richardson R.I., Nute G.R., Fisher A.V., Campo M.M., Kasapidou E., Sheard P.R., Enser M., 2004. Effects of fatty acids on meat quality: a review. Meat Sci. 66, 21–32,
Wu J., Chen H., Li H., Tang Y., Yang L., Cao S., Qin D., 2016. Antidepressant potential of chlorogenic acid-enriched extract from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver bark with neuron protection and promotion of serotonin release through enhancing Synapsin I expression. Molecules 21, 260,
Wu T., Yu Z., Tang Q., Song H., Gao Z., Chen W., Zheng X., 2013. Honeysuckle anthocyanin supplementation prevents diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice. Food Funct. 4, 1654–1661,
Wu X., Wang S., Lu J., Jing Y., Li M., Cao J., Bian B., Hu C., 2018. Seeing the unseen of Chinese herbal medicine processing (Paozhi): advances in new perspectives. Chin. Med. 13, 4,
Xu J., Hou H., Hu J., Liu B., 2018. Optimized microwave extraction, characterization and antioxidant capacity of biological polysaccharides from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaf. Sci. Rep. 8, 6561,
Xu J.K., Kurihara H., Zhao L., Yao X.S., 2007. Theacrine, a special purine alkaloid with sedative and hypnotic properties from Cammelia assamica var. kucha in mice. J. Asian Nat. Prod. Res. 9, 665–672,
Xu W., Guan R., Shi F., Du A., Hu S., 2017. Structural analysis and immunomodulatory effect of polysaccharide from Atractylodis macrocephalae Koidz. on bovine lymphocytes. Carbohydr. Polym. 174, 1213–1223,
Xu X.B., Hu R., Qu Y.Q., 2012. Effect of Chinese herb feed additives on fattening performance and meat quality of swine. Jiangsu J. Agric. Sci. 28, 571–574,
Yan L., Meng Q.W., Ao X., Zhou T.X., Yoo J.S., Kim H.J., Kim I.H., 2011. Effects of fermented garlic powder supplementation on growth performance, blood characteristics and meat quality in finishing pigs fed low-nutrient-density diets. Livest. Sci. 137, 255–259,
Yang D., Bian L.Q., Liu X.J., Chen J., 2015. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine additives on the production performance and meat quality of fattening pigs. Feed Res. 2015(7), 1–5,
Yi Y., Liu Y.M., 2020. Effects of coptis extract on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and meat quality of finishing pigs. Chin. Feed 2020(8), 29–32,
Yu Q.P., Feng D.Y., Xia, M.H. et al., 2017. Effects of a traditional Chinese medicine formula supplementation on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and fatty acid profiles of finishing pigs. Livest. Sci. 202, 135–142,
Zeng S.H., 2016. Effects of Chinese herbal on the growth performance, meat quality and flavor in finishing pigs. MSc Thesis. South China Agricultural University. Guangzhou (China),
Zeng Z., Jiang J., Yu J., Mao X., Yu B., Chen D., 2019. Effect of dietary supplementation with mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves on the growth performance, meat quality and antioxidative capacity of finishing pigs. J. Integr. Agric. 18, 143–151,
Zhang C., Luo J., Yu B., Zheng P., Huang Z., Mao X., He J., Yu J., Chen J., Chen D., 2015. Dietary resveratrol supplementation improves meat quality of finishing pigs through changing muscle fiber characteristics and antioxidative status. Meat Sci. 102, 15–21,
Zhang Q., Li N., Liu Q.Y., Zhang Q., Jia L.J., Zhang S.M., 2020. Effects of Eucommia ulmoides powder in diets on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality traits and economic benefits of Songliao black pig. Feed Ind. 2020(23), 34–38,
Zhou T.X., Zhang Z.F., Kim I.H., 2013. Effects of dietary coptis Chinensis herb extract on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 26, 108–115,
Zhou Y., Ruan Z., Li X.L., Mi S.M., Jiang M., Liu W.H., Yang H.S., Wu X., Jiang G.L., Yin Y.L., 2016. Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaf polyphenol supplementation improves meat quality and regulates myofiber type in finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94, 164–168,
Zong X., Yan X., Wu J., Liu Z., Zhou H., Li N., Liu L., 2019. Potentially cardiotoxic diterpenoid alkaloids from the roots of Aconitum carmichaelii. J. Nat. Prod. 82, 980–989,
Growth-Promoting Effects of Zhenqi Granules on Finishing Pigs
Wentao Luo, Yaxue Huang, Xiuxiu Qiu, Wenxiao Zhuo, Yujun Tao, Shuaiyang Wang, Huaixia Li, Jing Shen, Lelin Zhao, Lijun Zhang, Shuo Li, Jie Liu, Qi Huang, Rui Zhou
Compared to antibiotic, feeding peony byproducts can improve growth performance, rumen fermentation, slaughter parameters, and meat quality of lambs
Xiaoyang Zhou, Hai Xiang, Yujie Han, Xiao Chang, Yue Gu, Zheng'an Liu, Jinzhen Jiao, Yi Fang, Rongzhen Zhong
Animal Science Journal
Potential of Organic Acids, Essential Oils and Their Blends in Pig Diets as Alternatives to Antibiotic Growth Promoters
Rumbidzai Blessing Nhara, Upenyu Marume, Carlos Wyson Tawanda Nantapo
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top