This study was conducted to assess the inclusion of varying levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on nutrients digestibility, feed intake, growth rate and serum metabolites of New Zealand white weaned rabbits (NZWR). Sixty-four (64) male NZWR (600 ± 8.58 g body weight, 28 days old) were raised on four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets formulated by adding MOLM at 0% (MOLM0), 5% (MOLM5), 10% (MOLM10) and 15% (MOLM15) in a factorial arrangement. There was a significant quadratic trend for fibre digestibility (y = 21.5 (± 0.04) − 0.58 (± 0.01) x + 0.03 (± 0.0008) x2; R2 = 0.99), and fat digestibility linearly increased (y = 3.9 (± 0.34) − 0.07 (± 0.11) x) with MOLM levels. The analysis of repeated measures showed a significant interaction effect of diet × week on weekly feed intake and growth performance. Feed intake demonstrated a linear trend, whilst weight gain and feed conversion ratio showed both linear and quadratic trend; however, the protein efficiency ratio exhibited a quadratic tendency. There were no significant linear and quadratic dependencies for serum biochemical components with the exception of aspartate aminotransferase and albumen. Therefore, it can be concluded that MOLM can be incorporated (up to 15%) in rabbit diets without any adverse effect on growth performance parameters.
We are grateful to Opti Feeds (South Africa) and Coniglio Rabbit Meat Farm (Pty) Ltd for outstanding contribution and assistance.
The Authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
日粮添加辣木叶粉对断奶新西兰兔生长性能和血液生化指 标的影响
摘要:本研究旨在评估不同日粮水平的辣木叶粉(Moringa oleifera leaf meal, MOLM)对新西兰断奶白兔 (NZWR)营养物质消化率、采食量、生长速度和血清代谢产物的影响。64只雄性NZWR(体重600±8.58 克,28日龄)在等氮、等能日粮条件下饲养,实验采用因子排列设计方法,将实验动物按MOLM日粮添加 量不同分为: 0%(MOLM0)、5%(MOLM5)、10%(MOLM10)和15%(MOLM15)四组进行饲养实验。结 果显示,随日粮MOLM含量增加,纤维消化率[y=21.5(±0.04)–0.58(±0.01)x+0.03(±0.0008)x2;R2=0.99]呈 显著的二次趋势,脂肪消化率呈线性增加[y=3.9(±0.34)–0.07(±0.11)x] 。重复测量分析显示,日粮×饲喂 周对周采食量和生长性能有显著的交互作用。采食量呈线性趋势,增重和饲料转化率呈线性和二次趋势; 然而,蛋白质效率比呈二次趋势。除天冬氨酸转氨酶和蛋白外,血清生化成分没有显著的线性和二次依赖 性。结果表明,高达15%的MOLM可以被添加入兔日粮中而不会对其生长性能参数产生任何不利影响。
Ahmed R.M.A., 2017. Evaluation of moringa (Moringa oleifera) as a new feed for rabbits. M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Technology and Development, Zagazig University, (Egypt)
AOAC International, 2005. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 16th Edition. Arlington, VA (USA)
Bona L., Van Staaveren N., Bishwo Bandhu Pokhare B.B., Van Krimpen M., Harlander-Matauschek A., 2018. The effect of low protein energy-rich diets on plasma hepatic markers, hepatic damage, and discrimination reversal learning in young female chicks. Front. Vet. Sci. 5, 107, https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets....
Bovera F., Moniello G., Riu N., Meo C., Pinna W., Nizza A., 2007. Effect of diet on metabolic profile of ostriches (Struthio camelus var. domesticus). Trop Anim. Health Prod. 39, 265–270, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250...
Briones J., Leung A., Bautista N. et al., 2017. Utilization of Moringa oleifera Lam. in animal production. Acta Hortic. 1158, 467–474, https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaH...
Disetlhe A.R.P., Marume U., Mlambo V., 2018. Humic and enzyme inclusion in canola-based diets generate different responses in growth performance, protein utilization dynamic, and hematobiochemical parameters in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 97, 2745–2753, https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pey...
Dorning J., Harris S., 2017. The welfare of farmed rabbits in commercial production systems. A scientific review, 1–27, https://www.ciwf.org.uk/media/...
Dougnon T.J., Aboh B.A., Kpodekon T.M., Honvon S., Youssao I., 2012. Effects of substitution of pellet of Moringa oleifera to commercial feed on rabbit’s digestion, growth performance and carcass trait. J. App. Pharm. Sci. 2, 15–19,https://doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2...
Duke A.J., 1998. Moringaceae. Handbook of energy crops. Purdue University, Center for New Crops and Plants Products, West. Lafayette, IN (USA)
El-Desoky A.M.I., Alazab A.M., Bakr E.L.O., Elseady Y.A., 2018. Effect of adding Moringa leave meal to rabbit diets on some productive and reproductive performance traits. Egypt. J. Rabbit Sci. 28, 263–286, https://doi.org/10.21608/ejrs....
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), 2012
FAOSTAT. http://faostat.fao.org/site/56.... aspx?PageI D=569#ancor (access: Production/Livestock Primary)
Foidl N. Makkar H.P.S., Becker K., 2001. The potential of Moringa oleifera for agricultural and industrial uses. In: L.J. Fugile (Editor). The miracle tree: the multiple attributes of Moringa. CTA Publication. Wageningen, (NL), pp. 45–76
Jiwuba P.C., Ogbuewu I.P., 2019. Potential of Moringa oleifera leaf meal to replace soybean meal in rabbit diets and its influence on production parameters. Asian J. Biol. Sci. 12, 656–663, https://doi.org/10.3923/ajbs.2...
Mahfuz S., Piao X.S., 2019. Application of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) as natural feed supplement in poultry diets. Animals 9, 431,https://doi.org/10.3390/ani907...
Maina J.G., Beames R.M., Higgs D., Mbugua P.N., Iwama G., Kisia S.M., 2007. The feeding value and protein quality in high fibre and fibre-reduced sunflower cake and Kenya’s “omena” fishmeal for tilapia (Oreochchromis niloticus). Livest. Res. Rural. Dev. 19, 1–7, http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd19/11/...
Manyeula F., Mlambo V., Marume, U., Sebola N.A., 2019. Nutrient digestibility, haemo-biochemical parameters and growth performance of an indigenous chicken strain fed canola meal-containing diets. Trop Anim Health Prod. 51, 2343–2350, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250...
McDonald P., Edwards R.A., Greenhalgh J.F.D., Morgan C.A., 2002. Animal Nutrition. 6th Edition. Longman, London and New York, http://books.google.fr/books?i...
Melillo A., 2007. Rabbit clinical pathology. J. Exot. Pet Med. 16, 135–145, https://doi.org/10.1053/j.jepm...
Mengesha M., 2012. The issue of feed-food competition and chicken production for the demands of foods of animal origin. Asian J. Poult. Sci. 6, 31–43, https://doi.org/10.3923/ajpsaj...
Mennani A., Arbouche Y., Arbouche R., Arbouche F., Ouzzir L., 2021. Dehydrated tomato pulp in rabbit feed: effects of incorporation rate on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality and economic efficiency. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 30, 271–278, https://doi.org/10.22358/jafs/...
Moyo B., Masika P.J., Hugo A., Muchenje V., 2011. Nutritional characterization of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves.Afr. J. Biotechnol. 10, 12925–12933, https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB10....
NRC (National Research Council), 1977. Nutrient Requirements of Rabbits. 2th Revised Edition. The National Academies Press. Washington, DC (USA), https://doi.org/10.17226/35
Oladeji O.A., Taiwo K.A., Gbadamosi S.O., Oladeji B.S., Ishola M.M., 2017. Studies on chemical constituents and nutrients bioavailability in Moringa oleifera leaf and seed. J. Sci. Res. Rep. 14, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.9734/JSRR/2...
Olatunji A.K., Alagbe O.J., Hammed M.A., 2013. Effect of varying of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on performance and blood profile of weaner rabbits. Int. J. Sci. Res. 6, 803–806
Omara M.E., El-Esawy G.S., Riad W.A., El-Din A.M.A., 2018. Effects of supplementing rabbit diets with Moringa oleifera dry leaves at different levels on their productive performance. AJB. 5,443-453, https://doi.org/10.21608/ejnf....
Omidi A., Ansari nik H., 2013. Selected biochemical values of yearling African blue neck ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Iran. Comp. Clin. Pathol. 22, 601–604, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580...
Saalu L.C., Osinubi A.A., Akinbami A.A., Yama O.E., Oyewopo A.O., Enaibe B.U., 2011. Moringa oleifera Lamarck (drumstick) leaf extract modulates the evidence of hydroxyurea-induced testicular derangement. Int. J. Appl. Res. Nat. Prod. 4, 32–45
Sarwatt S.V., Milang’ha M.S., Lekule F.P., Madalla N., 2004. Moringa oleifera and Cotton seed cake as supplements for smallholder dairy cows fed Napier grass. Livest. Res. Rural. Dev. 16, 38
SAS, 2010. Users guide. Statistical Analysis System Institute Inc., Carry, NC (USA)
Sebola N.A., Mlambo V., Mokoboki H.K., 2017. Chemical characterisation of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaf and the apparent digestibility of MO leaf meal-based diets offered to three chicken strains. Agrofor. Syst. 93, 149–160, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457...
Seleiman M.F., Selim S., Alhammad B.A., Alharb B.M., Juliatti F.C., 2020. Will novel coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic impact agriculture, food security and animal sectors? Biosci. J. 36, 1315–1326, https://doi.org/10.14393/BJ-v3...
Selim S., Seleiman M.F., Hassan M.M., Saleh A.A., Mousa M.A., 2021. Impact of dietary supplementation with Moringa oleifera leaves on performance, meat characteristics, oxidative stability, and fatty acid profile in growing rabbits. Animals 11, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.3390/ani110...
Stevens C.G., Ugese F.D., Otitoju G.T., Baiyeri K.P., 2015. Proximate analysis and anti-nutritional composition of leaves and seeds of Moringa oleifera in Nigeria: a comparative study. Agro-Science 14, 6–17, https://doi.org/10.4314/as.v14...
Sun B., Zhang Y., Ding M., Xi Q., Liu G., Li Y., Liu D., Chen X., 2018. Effects of Moringa oleifera leaves as a substitute for alfalfa meal on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, carcass trait, meat quality, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters of rabbits. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 102, 194–203, https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12...
Washington I.M., Van Hoosier G., 2012. Clinical biochemistry and hematology. University of Washington, Seattle, WA (USA), https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0...