The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of whey powder (WP) on the fermentation quality, nutritive value, and digestibility of ensiled alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Alfalfa treated with different doses of WP (0, 2, and 4% fresh matter silage) was ensiled in plastic drums for 60 days. The results of the study revealed that the physicochemical composition and fermentation quality of the alfalfa silage improved and that mold growth was inhibited in the groups treated with 2 and 4% WP in comparison to that in the control. Production of CO2 (day 7) was much lower in silages treated with 2 and 4% WP (3.77 and 1.85 g/kg dry matter (DM), respectively) than in the control group (21.36 g/kg DM). In addition, in vivo dry matter digestibility (DMD) was much higher in the group treated with 4% WP (76.45%) than in the control one (55.82%). In this treatment group, all apparent digestibility of coefficients in vivo from crude nutrient contents and cell wall fractions significantly increased and hence raised the net lactation energy value from 1.18 to 1.31 Mcal/kg DM. However, although the in vitro DMD was higher in the silages treated with WP than in the control one and the dose was significant, there was no strong correlation between in vivo and in vitro values. According to our results, WP could provide an advantage for the conservation of alfalfa silage. In addition, WP could be evaluated as a sustainable silage additive.
This study was supported by TÜBİTAK 1002 - Short Term R&D Funding Programme (No: 116 O 110) and was included part of Sema ÖZÜRETMEN’s PhD thesis. Those who participated were as follows: SÖ: original draft, conceptualization, investigation, data collection, formal analysis, and writing; HÖ: original draft, conceptualization, project administration, supervision, validation, and editing; HHİ: in vitro digestibility and the correlation between in vitro and in vivo parameters and contributed to writing this article. The authors also thank TÜBİTAK for financial support.
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
本研究旨在研究乳清粉(WP)对青贮苜蓿(Medicago sativa L.)发酵品质、营养价值和消化率的影响。用不同剂量的乳清粉(分别占新鲜苜蓿青贮的0%、2%和4%)处理的苜蓿经塑料桶青贮60天。研究结果表明,与对照组相比,2%和4%乳清粉处理组的苜蓿青贮饲料的理化成分和发酵质量得到改善,霉菌生长受到抑制。添加2%和4%乳清粉(分别为3.77和1.85 g/kg干物质(DM))的青贮饲料的第7天CO2产量远低于对照组(21.36 g/kg DM)。此外,4%乳清粉处理组(76.45%)的体内干物质消化率(DMD)远高于对照组(55.82%)。在该处理组中,所有粗营养成分和细胞壁组分的在体表观消化率系数显著增加,因此泌乳净能值从1.18 Mcal/kg DM提高到1.31 Mcal/kg DM。但是,虽然经WP处理的青贮饲料的体外DMD高于对照组青贮饲料,且剂量显著,但体内和体外数值之间没有强相关性。我们的研究结果显示,乳清粉可为苜蓿青贮保存提供有利条件。此外,乳清粉可以作为一种可持续的青贮饲料添加剂进行评估。
Anonymus, 1986. The Analysis of Agricultural Materials: A Mannual of The Analytical Methods Used by The Agricultural Development and Advisory Service. 3rd Edition. H.M. Stationery Office London.
Anonymus, 2022. Whey powder for animal feed prices, https://www.clal.it/en/?sectio....
Ashbell G., Weinberg Z.G., Azrieli A., Hen Y., Horev B., 1991. A simple system to study the aerobic deterioration of silages. Can. Agric. Eng. 33, 391–393.
Barchiesi-Ferrari C., Alomar D., Miranda H., 2011. Pepsin-cellulase digestibility of pasture silages: effects of pasture type, maturity stage, and variations in the enzymatic method. Chil. J. Agric. Res. 71, 249–257.
Bijelić Z., Tomić Z., Ružić-Muslić D. et al., 2015. Silage fermentation characteristics of grass-legume mixtures harvested at two different maturity stages. Biotechnol. Anim. 31, 303–311, https://doi.org/10.2298/BAH150...
Castaño G.A., Villa L.M., 2017. Use of whey and molasses as additive for producing silage of Cuba OM-22 (Cenchrus purpureus x Cenchrus glaucum). Cuban J. Agr. Sci. 51, 61–70.
Danner H., Holzer M., Mayrhuber E., Braun R., 2003. Acetic acid increases stability of silage under aerobic conditions. Appl.Environ. Microbiol. 69, 562–567, https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.69....
Dash S.K., Voelker H.H., Muller L.D., Schingoethe D.J., 1974. Dried whey as an additive for reconstituted alfalfa hay silage. J. Dairy Sci. 57, 314–318, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
De Boever J.L., Cottyn B.C., Buysse F.X., Wainman F.W., Vanacker J.M., 1986. The use of an enzymatic technique to predict digestibility, metabolizable energy of compound feedstuffs for ruminants. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 14, 203–214, https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8....
DLG - Deutsche Landwirtschafts-Gesellschaft, 1987. Bewertung Von Grünfutter Silage Und Heu. Merkblatt No: 224 (in Deutsch).
El-Shewy A.A., 2016. Whey as a feed ingredient for lactating cattle. Sci. Int. 4, 80–85, https://doi.org/10.17311/sciin....
El-Tanboly E.S., El-Hofi M., Khorshid, 2017. Recovery of cheese whey, a by-product from the dairy industry for use as an animal feed. J. Nutr. Health Food Eng. 6 (5), 148–154, https://doi.org/10.15406/jnhfe....
EWPA - European Whey Processors Association, 2016. Whey in Animal Nutrition – A Valuable Ingredient. Brussels: European. Whey Products Association, p. 20.
Fallah R., 2019. Effects of adding whey and molasses on corn silage quality, growth performance and health of Simmental fattening calves. Livest. Sci. 10, 91–96, https://doi.org/10.33259/JLive....
GfE - Gesellschaft fur Ernahrungsphysiologie, 1991. Leitlinien für die bestimmung der verdaulichkeit von rohnahrstoffen an. wiederkauern. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 65, 229–234.
Goering H.K., Van Soest P.J., 1970. Forage Fiber Analyses. Agriculture Handbook. No: 379. Washington DC (USA). pp. 829–835.
Huuskonen A., 2017. Effects of skim milk and whey-based milk replacers on feed intake and growth of dairy calves. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 45, 480–484, https://doi.org/10.1080/097121....
Jonker A., Yu P., 2016. The role of proanthocyanidins complex in structure and nutrition interaction in alfalfa forage. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 17, 793, https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17....
Kang J., Tang S., Zhong R., Tan Z., Wu D., 2021. Alfalfa silage treated with sucrose has an ımproved feed quality and more beneficial bacterial communities. Front. Microbiol. 12, 670165, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.....
Keener L., 2019. Whey powder and food safety risks: a lesson in validation and verification. Food Safety Magazine 16 April. 2019, https://www.food-safety.com/ar.... Accessed on: Feb. 10, 2019.
Kılıç A., 1986. Silo Yemleri. İzmir-Turkey: Bilgehan Publishers. p. 327 (in Turkish).
Królczyk J.B., Dawidziuk T., Janiszewska-Turak E., Sołowiej B., 2016. Use of whey and whey preparations in the Food Industry–a Review. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 66, 157–165, https://doi.org/10.1515/pjfns-....
Kung L.J.R., 2010. Understanding the biology of silage preservation to maximize quality and protect the environment. Proceedings, 2010 California Alfalfa & Forage Symposium and Corn/Cereal Silage Conference, Visalia, CA, 1–2 December, 2010.
Kung L.J.R., Shaver R.D., Grant R.J., Schmidt R.J., 2018. Silage review: Interpretation of chemical, microbial, and organoleptic components of silages. J. Dairy Sci. 101, 4020–4033, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Küçük O., 2019. Practical Nutrition of Calf, Heifer, Dairy Cow and Beef Cattle- 2nd Edition. 123p. Kayseri (Turkey).
Ma T., Tu Y., Zhang N.F., Deng K.D., Dia Q.Y., 2015. Effect of the ratio of non-fibrous carbohydrates to neutral detergent fiber and protein structure on intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen metabolism in lambs. Asian-Australas J. Anim. Sci. 28, 1419–1426 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1....
Mariotti M., Fratini F., Cerri D. et al., 2020. Use of fresh Scotta Whey as an additive for alfalfa silage. Agronomy 10, 365, https://doi.org/10.3390/agrono....
McDonald P., Edwards R.A., Greenhalgh J.F.D., Morgan C.A., 2010. Animal Nutrition. 7th Edition. Edinburgh, UK. p. 71. ISBN: 0 582 41906 9.
Menke K.H., Huss W., 1975. Tierernährung und Futtermittelkunde Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Germany). pp. 74–79, (in Deutsch). ISBN: 3-8001-2410-6.
Naumann C., Bassler R., 1993. Die Chemische Unterschungen Von Futtermitteln. Methodenbuch Band III, VDLUFA-Verlag, Frankfurt (Germany) (in Deutsch).
NRC - National Research Council, 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals. 7th Rev. Edit. National Research Council, Washington, DC (USA).
Olowu O.O., Yaman Fırıncıoğlu S., 2019. Feed evaluation methods: performance, economy and environment. EJAR. 3, 48–57.
Playne M.J., McDonald P., 1966. The buffering constituent of herbage and silage. J. Sci. Food Agric. 17, 264–268.
Rohweder D.A., Barnes R.F., Jorgensen N.,1978. Proposed hay grading standards based on laboratory analyses for evaluating quality. J. Anim. Sci. 47, 747–759.
SPSS, 2013. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows. Version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.
Şengül A.Y., Aydın R., 2019. Use of farmatan as an additive to make alfalfa silage. Turk. J. Agr. Nat. Sci. 6, 579–587, https://doi.org/10.30910/turkj....
Tournas V., Stack M.E., Mislivec P.B., Koch H.A., Bandler R., 1998. Yeasts, Molds and Mycotoxins. CFSAN FDA Bacteriological.
Analytical Manual (BAM). Karen Jinneman (Chair). 8th Edition, Revision A, Chapter 18.
The Use of Whey Powder Additions for Grass Silage: Effects on Nutrient Content, Fermentation Properties and Aerobic Stability
Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology
Effect of Yogurt Acid Whey on the Quality of Maize Silage
Irida Palamidi, Vasileios Paraskeuas, Basiliki Kotsampasi, Ioannis Hadjigeorgiou, Ioannis Politis, Konstantinos Mountzouris
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top