Developments in the breeding of low fibre rapeseed/canola
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Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
Publication date: 1997-08-19
J. Anim. Feed Sci. 1997;6(3):303-318
Evaluation of the nutritive profiles of the meals derived from yellow-seeded Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. juncea carinata and Sinapis alba genotypes (27 samples) and conventional brown-seeded canola (7 samples) was undertaken. On average, in comparison to brown-seeded, yellow seeded types contained more sucrose (8.7 vs 7.5%) and protein (44.5 vs 42.7%) but similar amouns of oligosaccharides (2.3 vs 2.5%), ash (6.9 vs 7.0%), a nonstarch polysaccaharides (20.4 vs 19.7%). Total dietary fibre averaged 28% for yellow-seeded samples and 33% for brown-seeded samples and was negatively correlated (r = -0.71) with protein content. The negative relationship between protein and dietary fibre contents was also evident for the sample of conventional canola grown under different environment conditions. An in vitro digestible protein measurement was used to establish optimal conditions for the processing of canola seed. Digestible protein content of three oil free seed samples increased substantially with increased temperature of moist heat treatment up to 108 ± 1°C. Heat treatment below 105°C was not effective in promoting protein digestibility. Application of higher temperatures ( > 110°C) resulted in a significant decline in protein digestibility. The optimal moist heat treatment conditions were chosen for processing of the seed samples selected for further evaluation in vivo. The samples included the yellow-seeded B. napus, B.juncea and B. rapa and the brown-seed B. napus canola. Availability of energy and amino acids and the overall feeding quality as determined in a 2-week growth trial with 4-day-old broiler chickens were assessed. Two commercial meals from yellow-seeded B. rapa and brown-seeded B. napus canola served as control samples. Availability of amino acids averaged 84.1 % with only minor differences among the samples. True metabolizable energy (AMEN) content was highest in the yellow-seeded B. napus sample. There were no differences in weight gain of broiler chickens fed the commercial or laboratory prepared B. rapa and yellow- and brown-seeded B. napus meals. Chickens fed B.juncea meal showed significantly lower feed intake and body weight gain which appeared to be attributed to a relatively high content of aliphatic glucosinolates in particular meal (i.e., 21.7 µmol/g DM). Birds fed the yellow-seeded B. napus canola showed the highest feed efficiency value which averaged 1.51 and differed significantly from that of 1.59 and 1.61 for the commercial yellow-seeded B. rapa and the laboratory prepared brown-seeded B. napus canola, respectively. It may be surmised that future cultivars of yellow-seeded canola will have improved nutritive value. Effective introduction of Brassica juncea nad Sinapis alba as new crops for the Canadian Praires would necessitate further quality improvement by lowering the glucosinolate content.
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