0.906
IF5
0.875
IF
Q3
JCR
1.0
CiteScore
0.374
SJR
Q2
SJR
20
MNiSW
165.24
ICV
REVIEW PAPER
 
CC-BY 4.0
 
 

A review of efficiency of nitrogen utilisation in lactating dairy cows and its relationship with environmental pollution

A. R. Castillo 1, 2,  
E. Kebreab 1,  
D. E. Beever 1,  
 
1
The University of Reading, Centre for Dairy Research, Department of Agriculture, Earley Gate, P.O.Box 236, Reading RG6 6AT, United Kingdom
2
Present address: EEA Rafaela INTA Casilla de correo 22, (2300) Rafaela, Santa Fe, Argentina
J. Anim. Feed Sci. 2000;9(1):1–32
Publish date: 2000-01-13
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
The objective of this paper is to review the literature concerning nitrogen utilisation in lactating dairy cows with an emphasis on their contribution to environmental pollution. Nitrogen, as oxides or ammonia, is one of the green houses gases contributing to air pollution and through leaching to rivers and ground water resources. A quantitative analysis of the contribution of dairy cows to pollution at the farm level is given and the effect of different types of carbohydrate and protein supplementation discussed. The relationship between nitrogen intake and nitrogen balance was investigated using data from 580 dairy cows and 90 treatments published in the literature. Regression analysis described the relationships between nitrogen intake and output in faeces, urine and milk. Inefficient utilisation of nitrogen by dairy cows indicates that about 72% of consumed nitrogen is excreted in faeces and urine. There were positive linear relationships between nitrogen intake and output in faeces, urine and milk up to an intake of 400 g N/d. However, above 400 g N/d, excretion in urine increased exponentially while the rate of increase in nitrogen excretion in faeces and milk declined linearly. To reduce nitrogen pollution, it is recommended to decrease the amount of crude protein in the total diet to approximately 150 g/kg DM which compared with levels of 200 g/crude protein/kg DM consumption can reduce annual nitrogen excretion in faeces by 21% and more importantly in urine by 66%. Management practices with respect to silage making and the choice of supplements need to be considered with the aim of reducing total nitrogen in excreta and if possible shifting nitrogen excretion from urine to faeces.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
E. Kebreab
The University of Reading, Centre for Dairy Research, Department of Agriculture, Earley Gate, P.O.Box 236, Reading RG6 6AT, United Kingdom
 
CITATIONS (132):
1. Relationship between content of crude protein in rations for dairy cows, N in urine and ammonia release
C Swensson
Livestock Production Science
2. Options for the abatement of methane and nitrous oxide from ruminant production: A review
R.J. Eckard, C. Grainger, C.A.M. de Klein
Livestock Science
3. Re-framing the climate change debate in the livestock sector: mitigation and adaptation options
M.G. Rivera-Ferre, F. López-i-Gelats, M. Howden, P. Smith, J.F. Morton, M. Herrero
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change
4. Leaf Rubisco turnover in a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) mapping population: genetic variation, identification of associated QTL, and correlation with plant morphology and yield
Edith N. Khaembah, Louis J. Irving, Errol R. Thom, Marty J. Faville, H. Sydney Easton, Cory Matthew
Journal of Experimental Botany
5. Effects of replacing canola meal as the major protein source with wheat dried distillers grains with solubles on ruminal function, microbial protein synthesis, omasal flow, and milk production in cows
G.E. Chibisa, D.A. Christensen, T. Mutsvangwa
Journal of Dairy Science
6. Effects of level of nitrogen fertilizer application and various nitrogenous supplements on milk production and nitrogen utilization of dairy cows given grass silage-based diets
K.J. Shingfield, S. Jaakkola, P. Huhtanen
Animal Science
7. Effect of time of maize silage supplementation on herbage intake, milk production, and nitrogen excretion of grazing dairy cows
O. Al-Marashdeh, P. Gregorini, G.R. Edwards
Journal of Dairy Science
8. Italian ryegrass silage in winter feeding of organic dairy cows: forage intake, milk yield and composition
Lisa Baldinger, Roswitha Baumung, Werner Zollitsch, Wilhelm F Knaus
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
9. Predicting nitrogen dynamics in a dairy farming catchment using systems synthesis modelling
Andrew P. Smith, Andrew W. Western
Agricultural Systems
10. Diana R. Selbie, Laura E. Buckthought, Mark A. Shepherd
11. Predicting nitrogen excretion from cattle
K.F. Reed, L.E. Moraes, D.P. Casper, E. Kebreab
Journal of Dairy Science
12. Diet effects on urine composition of cattle and N2O emissions
J. Dijkstra, O. Oenema, J. W. van Groenigen, J. W. Spek, A. M. van Vuuren, A. Bannink
animal
13. Use of SIMSDAIRY modelling framework system to compare the scope on the sustainability of a dairy farm of animal and plant genetic-based improvements with management-based changes
A. del PRADO, D. SCHOLEFIELD
The Journal of Agricultural Science
14. Nitrogen partitioning and isotopic fractionation in dairy cows consuming diets based on a range of contrasting forages
L. Cheng, E.J. Kim, R.J. Merry, R.J. Dewhurst
Journal of Dairy Science
15. Composição do leite de vacas Holandesas em pastejo de azevém com a utilização do trevo branco como fonte proteica
R.H. Krolow, M.A. Silva, N.R. Paim, R.B. Medeiros, H.L. Gonzalez
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
16. The use of Italian ryegrass silage in a low input dairy cow feeding system in Austrian organic agriculture
Lisa Baldinger, Werner Zollitsch, Wilhelm F. Knaus
Organic Agriculture
17. A temporally and spatially resolved ammonia emission inventory for dairy cows in the United States
Robert W Pinder, Ross Strader, Cliff I Davidson, Peter J Adams
Atmospheric Environment
18. Dietary carbohydrate composition modifies the milk N efficiency in late lactation cows fed low crude protein diets
G. Cantalapiedra-Hijar, J. L. Peyraud, S. Lemosquet, E. Molina-Alcaide, H. Boudra, P. Nozière, I. Ortigues-Marty
animal
19. Cost effectiveness of nitrate leaching mitigation measures for grassland livestock systems at locations in England and Wales
L.M. Cardenas, S.P. Cuttle, B. Crabtree, A. Hopkins, A. Shepherd, D. Scholefield, A. del Prado
Science of The Total Environment
20. Evaluation of urine excretion from dairy cows under two farm systems using urine sensors
M. Shepherd, P. Shorten, D. Costall, K.A. Macdonald
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
21. Aspects of nitrogen metabolism in sheep-fed mixed diets containing tree and shrub foliages
Amlan K. Patra
British Journal of Nutrition
22. Effects of feeding and animal performance on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium excretion by Holstein cows
Hideki KOJIMA, Shin-ichi KUME, Kazuhisa NONAKA, Tomoko OSHITA, Takaharu KOZAKAI, Hiroyuki HIROOKA
Animal Science Journal
23. Response of growing ruminants to diet in warm climates: a meta-analysis
N. Salah, D. Sauvant, H. Archimède
animal
24. Low degradable protein supply to increase nitrogen efficiency in lactating dairy cows and reduce environmental impacts at barn level
N. Edouard, M. Hassouna, P. Robin, P. Faverdin
animal
25. Effects of dietary crude protein and rumen-degradable protein concentrations on urea recycling, nitrogen balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows
T. Mutsvangwa, K.L. Davies, J.J. McKinnon, D.A. Christensen
Journal of Dairy Science
26. Effect of winter feeding systems on farm greenhouse gas emissions
A.W. Alemu, R.R. Doce, A.C. Dick, J.A. Basarab, R. Kröbel, K. Haugen-Kozyra, V.S. Baron
Agricultural Systems
27. Use of a systems synthesis approach to model nitrogen losses from dairy farms in south-west England
S. P. Cuttle, S. C. Jarvis
Grass and Forage Science
28. Increasing home-grown forage consumption and profit in non-irrigated dairy systems. 2. Forage harvested
J. Tharmaraj, D. F. Chapman, J. Hill, J. L. Jacobs, B. R. Cullen
Animal Production Science
29. Range of quality characteristics of New Zealand forages and implications for reducing the nitrogen leaching risk from grazing dairy cows
Dawn E. Dalley, Brendon J. Malcolm, Emmanuel Chakwizira, John M. de Ruiter
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research
30. The effect of high-sugar grass on predicted nitrogen excretion and milk yield simulated using a dynamic model
J.L. Ellis, J. Dijkstra, A. Bannink, A.J. Parsons, S. Rasmussen, G.R. Edwards, E. Kebreab, J. France
Journal of Dairy Science
31. White or red clover-grass silage in organic dairy milk production: Grassland productivity and milk production responses with different levels of concentrate
Håvard Steinshamn, Erling Thuen
Livestock Science
32. Effects of feeding wheat or corn-wheat dried distillers grains with solubles in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal function, omasal nutrient flows, urea-N recycling, and performance in cows
G.E. Chibisa, T. Mutsvangwa
Journal of Dairy Science
33. The partial replacement of soyabean meal and rapeseed meal with feed grade urea or a slow-release urea and its effect on the performance, metabolism and digestibility in dairy cows
L. A. Sinclair, C. W. Blake, P. Griffin, G. H. Jones
animal
34. Increased stocking rate and associated strategic dry-off decision rules reduced the amount of nitrate-N leached under grazing
J.R. Roche, S.F. Ledgard, M.S. Sprosen, S.B. Lindsey, J.W. Penno, B. Horan, K.A. Macdonald
Journal of Dairy Science
35. Genetic parameters of protein efficiency and its relationships with yield traits in lactating dairy cows
P. Zamani, S.R. Miraei-Ashtiani, D. Alipour, H. Aliarabi, A.A. Saki
Livestock Science
36. A nitrogen index for improving nutrient management within commercial Mexican dairy operations
Uriel Figueroa-Viramontes, Jorge A. Delgado, Juan I. Sánchez-Duarte, Esmeralda Ochoa-Martínez, Gregorio Núñez-Hernández
International Soil and Water Conservation Research
37. Nitrogen performance indicators for dairy production systems
Cecile A. M. de Klein, Ross M. Monaghan, Marta Alfaro, Cameron J. P. Gourley, Oene Oenema, J. Mark Powell
Soil Research
38. Prediction of Ammonia Emission from Dairy Cattle Manure Based on Milk Urea Nitrogen: Relation of Milk Urea Nitrogen to Urine Urea Nitrogen Excretion
S.A. Burgos, J.G. Fadel, E.J. DePeters
Journal of Dairy Science
39. Short communication: Relationship between the efficiency of utilization of feed nitrogen and 15N enrichment in casein from lactating dairy cows
A.R.J. Cabrita, A.J.M. Fonseca, R.J. Dewhurst
Journal of Dairy Science
40. Corn silage hybrid type and quality of alfalfa hay affect dietary nitrogen utilization by early lactating dairy cows1
M.S. Holt, K. Neal, J.-S. Eun, A.J. Young, J.O. Hall, K.E. Nestor
Journal of Dairy Science
41. Evaluation of equations predicting the net portal appearance of amino acid nitrogen in ruminants
R. Martineau, C. Côrtes, I. Ortigues-Marty, D.R. Ouellet, H. Lapierre
Journal of Dairy Science
42. Environmental influences on optimum nitrogen fertiliser rates for temperate dairy pastures
Keith G. Pembleton, Richard P. Rawnsley, Lucy L. Burkitt
European Journal of Agronomy
43. Effects of crude protein level in concentrate supplements on animal performance and nitrogen utilization of lactating dairy cows fed fresh-cut perennial grass
D.N. Hynes, S. Stergiadis, A. Gordon, T. Yan
Journal of Dairy Science
44. Livestock production in a changing climate: adaptation and mitigation research in Australia
Beverley Henry, Ed Charmley, Richard Eckard, John B. Gaughan, Roger Hegarty
Crop and Pasture Science
45. Effect of fat supplementation on nitrogen utilisation of lambs and nitrogen emission from their manure
A. Machmüller, D.A. Ossowski, M. Kreuzer
Livestock Science
46. Capitalizing on fine milk composition for breeding and management of dairy cows 1
N. Gengler, H. Soyeurt, F. Dehareng, C. Bastin, F. Colinet, H. Hammami, M.-L. Vanrobays, A. Lainé, S. Vanderick, C. Grelet, A. Vanlierde, E. Froidmont, P. Dardenne
Journal of Dairy Science
47. Interactions of energy and predicted metabolizable protein in determining nitrogen efficiency in the lactating dairy cow
A.G. Rius, M.L. McGilliard, C.A. Umberger, M.D. Hanigan
Journal of Dairy Science
48. Feeding protein supplements in alfalfa hay-based lactation diets improves nutrient utilization, lactational performance, and feed efficiency of dairy cows1
K. Neal, J.-S. Eun, A.J. Young, K. Mjoun, J.O. Hall
Journal of Dairy Science
49. Potential for forage diet manipulation in New Zealand pasture ecosystems to mitigate ruminant urine derived N2O emissions: a review
CA Gardiner, TJ Clough, KC Cameron, HJ Di, GR Edwards, CAM de Klein
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research
50. A process-based model of ammonia emissions from dairy cows: improved temporal and spatial resolution
Robert W. Pinder, Natalie J. Pekney, Cliff I. Davidson, Peter J. Adams
Atmospheric Environment
51. Methane reduction and energy partitioning in goats fed two concentrations of tannin from Mimosa spp.
R. BHATTA, O. ENISHI, Y. YABUMOTO, I. NONAKA, N. TAKUSARI, K. HIGUCHI, K. TAJIMA, A. TAKENAKA, M. KURIHARA
The Journal of Agricultural Science
52. A model of nitrogen efficiency in contrasting grass-based dairy systems
W. Ryan, D. Hennessy, J.J. Murphy, T.M. Boland, L. Shalloo
Journal of Dairy Science
53. Impact of dietary manipulation on nutrient flows and greenhouse gas emissions in cattle
Ermias Kebreab, Anders Strathe, James Fadel, Luis Moraes, James France
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia
54. Development and evaluation of equations in the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System to predict nitrogen excretion in lactating dairy cows
R.J. Higgs, L.E. Chase, M.E. Van Amburgh
Journal of Dairy Science
55. Ingestion and excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus by beef cattle under contrasting grazing intensities
R. J. Orr, B. A. Griffith, J. E. Cook, R. A. Champion
Grass and Forage Science
56. Partitioning of energy and nitrogen in lactating primiparous and multiparous Holstein–Friesian cows with divergent residual feed intake
L. C. Marett, S. R. O. Williams, B. J. Hayes, J. E. Pryce, W. J. Wales
Animal Production Science
57. Feeding strategies for reducing nitrogen excretion in New Zealand milk production
J.M. Wilkinson, L.A. Waldron
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition
58. Relation of net portal flux of nitrogen compounds with dietary characteristics in ruminants: A meta-analysis approach
R. Martineau, D. Sauvant, D.R. Ouellet, C. Côrtes, J. Vernet, I. Ortigues-Marty, H. Lapierre
Journal of Dairy Science
59. Effect of camelina oil or live yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on ruminal methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage diets
A.R. Bayat, P. Kairenius, T. Stefański, H. Leskinen, S. Comtet-Marre, E. Forano, F. Chaucheyras-Durand, K.J. Shingfield
Journal of Dairy Science
60. Grazing management: setting the table, designing the menu and influencing the diner
Pablo Gregorini, Juan J. Villalba, Pablo Chilibroste, Frederick D. Provenza
Animal Production Science
61. Case Study: Effect of strategic ration balancing on the efficiency of milk protein production and environmental impact of dairy cows in a commercial herd
Yanting Chen, Joseph H. Harrison, Pius Ndegwa, Deb Wilks, Lynn VanWieringen, William Chalupa, Fei Sun
The Professional Animal Scientist
62. Estimating nitrogen excretion and deposition by lactating cows in grazed dairy systems
Sharon R. Aarons, Cameron J. P. Gourley, J. Mark Powell, Murray C. Hannah
Soil Research
63. Ammonia losses and nitrogen partitioning at a southern High Plains open lot dairy
Richard W. Todd, N. Andy Cole, G. Robert Hagevoort, Kenneth D. Casey, Brent W. Auvermann
Atmospheric Environment
64. Effects of partial substitution of concentrates with maize silage in organic dairy cow rations on performance and feed efficiency
Margit Velik, Roswitha Baumung, Werner Zollitsch, Wilhelm F. Knaus
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
65. Effect of dietary utilisation of sugarcane press mud on production performance of Muzaffarnagari lambs
Ranjan Kumar, S. K. Saha, Dinesh Kumar, M. S. Mahesh, C. D. Malapure
Tropical Animal Health and Production
66. CASE STUDY: Application and evaluation of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System as a tool to improve nitrogen utilization in commercial dairy herds
R.J. Higgs, L.E. Chase, M.E. Van Amburgh
The Professional Animal Scientist
67. Utilisation of N in perennial ryegrass cultivars by stall-fed lactating dairy cows
B.M. Tas, H.Z. Taweel, H.J. Smit, A. Elgersma, J. Dijkstra, S. Tamminga
Livestock Science
68. Energy and protein utilization by goats fed Italian ryegrass silage treated with molasses, urea, cellulase or cellulase + lactic acid bacteria
M Islam, O Enishi, A Purnomoadi, K Higuchi, N Takusari, F Terada
Small Ruminant Research
69. Predicting urinary nitrogen excretion by milk urea nitrogen in lactating Chinese Holstein cows
Shaowei ZHAI, Jianxin LIU, Yueming WU, Junan YE
Animal Science Journal
70. Effects of β-mannanase supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen utilization of Korean native goat (Capra hircus coreanae)
Jung-Jin Lee, Jakyeom Seo, Jae Keun Jung, Junsung Lee, Jae-Hwan Lee, Seongwon Seo
Livestock Science
71. Effects of rumen-protected methionine, lysine, and histidine on lactation performance of dairy cows
F. Giallongo, M.T. Harper, J. Oh, J.C. Lopes, H. Lapierre, R.A. Patton, C. Parys, I. Shinzato, A.N. Hristov
Journal of Dairy Science
72. Effects of dietary ruminally degradable starch and ruminally degradable protein levels on urea recycling, microbial protein production, nitrogen balance, and duodenal nutrient flow in beef heifers fed low crude protein diets
K. L. Davies, J. J. McKinnon, T. Mutsvangwa
Canadian Journal of Animal Science
73. Milk production and methane emissions from dairy cows fed a low or high proportion of red clover silage and an incremental level of rapeseed expeller
Helena Gidlund, Mårten Hetta, Pekka Huhtanen
Livestock Science
74. Short communication: Evaluation of nitrogen excretion equations from cattle
A.C.B. Johnson, K.F. Reed, E. Kebreab
Journal of Dairy Science
75. Rice gluten meal, an agro-industrial by-product, supports performance attributes in lactating Murrah buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis )
M.S. Mahesh, S.S. Thakur
Journal of Cleaner Production
76. Nitrogen utilization efficiency and prediction of nitrogen excretion in sheep offered fresh perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)1
Y. G. Zhao, A. W. Gordon, N. E. O'Connell, T. Yan
Journal of Animal Science
77. Effects of breed, sex, and concentrate supplementation on digestibility, enteric methane emissions, and nitrogen utilization efficiency in growing lambs offered fresh grass1
Y. G. Zhao, A. Aubry, N. E. O'Connell, R. Annett, T. Yan
Journal of Animal Science
78. Duration-controlled grazing of dairy cows. 2: nitrogen losses in sub-surface drainage water and surface runoff
Christine L. Christensen, Mike J. Hedley, James A. Hanly, David J. Horne
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research
79. Prediction of manure nitrogen and organic matter excretion for young Holstein cattle fed on grass silage-based diets1
H. P. Jiao, T. Yan, D. A. McDowell
Journal of Animal Science
80. Prediction of nitrogen excretion by beef cattle: A meta-analysis1,2,3
H. M. Waldrip, R. W. Todd, N. A. Cole
Journal of Animal Science
81. Recent advances in modeling nutrient utilization in ruminants1
E. Kebreab, J. Dijkstra, A. Bannink, J. France
Journal of Animal Science
82. Nitrogen recycling through the gut and the nitrogen economy of ruminants: An asynchronous symbiosis1
C. K. Reynolds, N. B. Kristensen
Journal of Animal Science
83. Effects of the dietary nonfiber carbohydrate content on lactation performance, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen utilization in mid-lactation dairy cows receiving corn stover
Zihai Wei, Baoxin Zhang, Jianxin Liu
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
84. Prediction of fecal nitrogen and phosphorus excretion for Chinese Holstein lactating dairy cows1
Q. B. Qu, P. Yang, R. Zhao, S. L. Zhi, Z. W. Zhai, F. F. Ding, K. Q. Zhang
Journal of Animal Science
85. Diurnal patterns of urination and drinking by grazing ruminants: a development in a mechanistic model of a grazing ruminant, MINDY
P. Gregorini, F. D. Provenza, J. J. Villalba, P. C. Beukes, M. J. Forbes
The Journal of Agricultural Science
86. Spatially and temporally variable urinary N loads deposited by lactating cows on a grazing system dairy farm
Awais Ahmed, Rajneet Sohi, Rakhshan Roohi, Markandeya Jois, Peter Raedts, Sharon R. Aarons
Journal of Environmental Management
87. An integrated mathematical model to evaluate nutrient partition in dairy cattle between the animal and its environment
E Kebreab, J.A.N Mills, L.A Crompton, A Bannink, J Dijkstra, W.J.J Gerrits, J France
Animal Feed Science and Technology
88. Short communication: Identifying challenges and opportunities for improved nutrient management through the USDA's Dairy Agroecosystem Working Group
M.A. Holly, P.J. Kleinman, R.B. Bryant, D.L. Bjorneberg, C.A. Rotz, J.M. Baker, M.V. Boggess, D.K. Brauer, R. Chintala, G.W. Feyereisen, J.D. Gamble, A.B. Leytem, K.F. Reed, P.A. Vadas, H.M. Waldrip
Journal of Dairy Science
89. Interaction between feed use efficiency and level of dietary crude protein on enteric methane emission and apparent nitrogen use efficiency with Norwegian Red dairy cows1
Alemayehu Kidane, Margareth Øverland, Liv Torunn Mydland, Egil Prestløkken
Journal of Animal Science
90. Crop management effects on supplementary feed quality and crop options for dairy feeding to reduce nitrate leaching
John M. de Ruiter, Brendon J. Malcolm, Emmanuel Chakwizira, Paul R. Johnstone, Shane Maley, Nathan P. Arnold, Dawn E. Dalley
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research
91. The rumen microbiome: a crucial consideration when optimising milk and meat production and nitrogen utilisation efficiency
Chloe Matthews, Fiona Crispie, Eva Lewis, Michael Reid, Paul W. O’Toole, Paul D. Cotter
Gut Microbes
92. A comparative study of ammonia transport across ruminal epithelia from Bos indicus crossbreds versus Bos taurus
Imtiaz Rabbani, Hannah-Sophie Braun, Tasneem Akhtar, Franziska Liebe, Julia Rosendahl, Martin Grunau, Uwe Tietjen, Saima Masood, Sabine Kaessmeyer, Dorothee Günzel, Habib Rehman, Friederike Stumpff
Animal Science Journal
93. Modeling the Effect of Nutritional Strategies for Dairy Cows on the Composition of Excreta Nitrogen
Jan Dijkstra, André Bannink, Pieter M. Bosma, Egbert A. Lantinga, Joan W. Reijs
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems
94. Oversupplying metabolizable protein in late gestation for beef cattle: effects on prepartum BW, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen balance, and skeletal muscle catabolism1
Koryn S Hare, Katie M Wood, Kortney Acton, Carolyn Fitzsimmons, Gregory B Penner
Journal of Animal Science
95. Nitrogen balances in temperate perennial grass and clover dairy pastures in south-eastern Australia
R. J. Eckard, D. F. Chapman, R. E. White
Australian Journal of Agricultural Research
96. Farklı Rasyon Senaryolarının İvesi Koyunlarında Dışkı Kaynaklı Sera Gazları Emisyonuna Etkileri
Sabri Yurtseven, Mehmet Avcı, Mehmet Çetin, İrfan Öztürk, Mustafa Boğa
Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi
97. The effect of oak tannin (Quercus robur) and hops (Humulus lupulus) on dietary nitrogen efficiency, methane emission, and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows fed a low-protein diet including linseed
M. Focant, E. Froidmont, Q. Archambeau, Q.C. Dang Van, Y. Larondelle
Journal of Dairy Science
98. Utilization and Partition of Dietary Nitrogen in Dairy Cows Fed Grass Silage-Based Diets
P. Huhtanen, J.I. Nousiainen, M. Rinne, K. Kytölä, H. Khalili
Journal of Dairy Science
99. Seasonal Diet Affects Ammonia Emissions from Tie-Stall Dairy Barns
J.M. Powell, G.A. Broderick, T.H. Misselbrook
Journal of Dairy Science
100. Effects of feeding grass or red clover silage cut at two maturity stages in dairy cows. 1. Nitrogen metabolism and supply of amino acids
A. Vanhatalo, K. Kuoppala, S. Ahvenjärvi, M. Rinne
Journal of Dairy Science
101. Dietary Manipulation in Dairy Cattle: Laboratory Experiments to Assess the Influence on Ammonia Emissions
T.H. Misselbrook, J.M. Powell, G.A. Broderick, J.H. Grabber
Journal of Dairy Science
102. Effect of Monensin on the Performance and Nitrogen Utilization of Lactating Dairy Cows Consuming Fresh Forage
R. Ruiz, G.L. Albrecht, L.O. Tedeschi, G. Jarvis, J.B. Russell, D.G. Fox
Journal of Dairy Science
103. Evaluation of Milk Urea Nitrogen as a Diagnostic of Protein Feeding
J. Nousiainen, K.J. Shingfield, P. Huhtanen
Journal of Dairy Science
104. The Effect of Protein Intake on Performance of Cows in Hot Environmental Temperatures
A. Arieli, G. Adin, I. Bruckental
Journal of Dairy Science
105. Supplementary Concentrate Type Affects Nitrogen Excretion of Grazing Dairy Cows
F.J. Mulligan, P. Dillon, J.J. Callan, M. Rath, F.P. O’Mara
Journal of Dairy Science
106. Varying Protein and Starch in the Diet of Dairy Cows. II. Effects on Performance and Nitrogen Utilization for Milk Production
I.R. Ipharraguerre, J.H. Clark
Journal of Dairy Science
107. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein Concentration on Milk Production and Nitrogen Utilization in Lactating Dairy Cows
J.J. Olmos Colmenero, G.A. Broderick
Journal of Dairy Science
108. Effect of feeding fresh or conditioned red clover on milk fatty acids and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows
M.R.F. Lee, V.J. Theobald, J.K.S. Tweed, A.L. Winters, N.D. Scollan
Journal of Dairy Science
109. Effect of Site and Source of Energy Supplementation on Milk Yield in Dairy Cows
A. Arieli, S. Abramson, S.J. Mabjeesh, S. Zamwel, I. Bruckental
Journal of Dairy Science
110. Relationships Among Manure Nitrogen Output and Dietary and Animal Factors in Lactating Dairy Cows
T. Yan, J.P. Frost, R.E. Agnew, R.C. Binnie, C.S. Mayne
Journal of Dairy Science
111. Comparative Evaluation of Alternative Forages to Grass Silage in the Diet of Early Lactation Dairy Cows
F. Burke, J.J. Murphy, M.A. O’Donovan, F.P. O’Mara, S. Kavanagh, F.J. Mulligan
Journal of Dairy Science
112. Effects of Cow Diet on the Microbial Community and Organic Matter and Nitrogen Content of Feces
P.C.J. van Vliet, J.W. Reijs, J. Bloem, J. Dijkstra, R.G.M. de Goede
Journal of Dairy Science
113. FRESH HERBAGE FOR DAIRY CATTLE
BART TAS
114. Effects of feeding unprocessed oilseeds on methane emission, nitrogen utilization efficiency and milk fatty acid profile of lactating dairy cows
C. Muñoz, R. Sánchez, A.M.T. Peralta, S. Espíndola, T. Yan, R. Morales, E.M. Ungerfeld
Animal Feed Science and Technology
115. Prediction and Comparison of Nitrogen Excretions in Dairy and Beef Cattle
Yousuke CHOUMEI, Fuminori TERADA, Hiroyuki HIROOKA
Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho
116. Maize silage as an energy supplement in organic dairy cow rations
Margit Velik, Roswitha Baumung, Wilhelm F. Knaus
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems
117. Evaluation of Solids, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Excretion Models for Lactating Dairy Cows
M. Hollmann, K.F. Knowlton, M.D. Hanigan
Journal of Dairy Science
118. Whole-farm nutrient balances are an important tool for California dairy farms
Alejandro R. Castillo
California Agriculture
119. Productive performance and digestive response of dairy cows fed different diets combining a total mixed ration and fresh forage
M. Pastorini, N. Pomiés, J.L. Repetto, A. Mendoza, C. Cajarville
Journal of Dairy Science
120. Predicting the profile of nutrients available for absorption: from nutrient requirement to animal response and environmental impact
J. Dijkstra, E. Kebreab, J. Mills, W. Pellikaan, S. López, A. Bannink, J. France
animal
121. Relation between milk urea content and nitrogen excretion from lactating cows
S. Zhai, J. Liu, Y. Ma
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Science
122. Feed nitrogen conversion in lactating dairy cows on pasture as affected by concentrate supplementation
Håvard Steinshamn, Mats Höglind, Torstein Garmo, Erling Thuen, Ulrik Brenøe
Animal Feed Science and Technology
123. Origin, quantities and fate of nitrogen flows associated with animal production
L. Delaby, J.-Y. Dourmad, F. Béline, P. Lescoat, P. Faverdin, J.-L. Fiorelli, F. Vertès, P. Veysset, T. Morvan, V. Parnaudeau, P. Durand, P. Rochette, J.-L. Peyraud
Advances in Animal Biosciences
124. Pathways to improving the N efficiency of grazing bovines
N.J. Hoekstra, R.P.O. Schulte, P.C. Struik, E.A. Lantinga
European Journal of Agronomy
125. What is the digestibility and caloric value of different botanical parts in corn residue to cattle?1
Emily Petzel, Evan Titgemeyer, Alexander Smart, Kristin Hales, Andrew Foote, Subash Acharya, Eric Bailey, Jeffrey Held, Derek Brake
Journal of Animal Science
126. A review of plant options for mitigating nitrous oxide emissions from pasture-based systems
Klein de, der van, Jiafa Luo, Keith Cameron, Hong Di
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research
127. Effect of N fertilisation rate, energy supplementation and supplementation strategy on efficiency of N utilisation in the sheep rumen
Veerle Fievez, Ann Vandeweghe, B. Vlaeminck, L. Mbanzamihigo, L. Carlier, D. Demeyer
Archiv für Tierernaehrung
128. Nitrogen use efficiency: A potential performance indicator and policy tool for dairy farms
J.M. Powell, C.J.P. Gourley, C.A. Rotz, D.M. Weaver
Environmental Science & Policy
129. Nitrogen use efficiency and manure management practices in contrasting dairy production systems
Cameron Gourley, Sharon Aarons, J. Powell
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
130. Influence of diet and manure management on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from dairy barns
N. Edouard, A. Charpiot, P. Robin, E. Lorinquer, J.-B. Dollé, P. Faverdin
animal
131. The Effect of Herbage Conservation Method on Protein Value and Nitrogen Utilization in Dairy Cows
Christian Böttger, Paolo Silacci, Frigga Dohme-Meier, Karl-Heinz Südekum, Ueli Wyss
Agriculture
132. Lupin-Pea-Cereal Mixture or Cereals as Supplements for Organic Dairy Cows
Margit Velik, Andreas Steinwidder, Wilhelm Knaus
Biological Agriculture & Horticulture
ISSN:1230-1388