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A review of efficiency of nitrogen utilisation in lactating dairy cows and its relationship with environmental pollution

A. R. Castillo 1, 2,  
E. Kebreab 1,  
D. E. Beever 1,  
The University of Reading, Centre for Dairy Research, Department of Agriculture, Earley Gate, P.O.Box 236, Reading RG6 6AT, United Kingdom
Present address: EEA Rafaela INTA Casilla de correo 22, (2300) Rafaela, Santa Fe, Argentina
J. Anim. Feed Sci. 2000;9(1):1–32
Publication date: 2000-01-13
The objective of this paper is to review the literature concerning nitrogen utilisation in lactating dairy cows with an emphasis on their contribution to environmental pollution. Nitrogen, as oxides or ammonia, is one of the green houses gases contributing to air pollution and through leaching to rivers and ground water resources. A quantitative analysis of the contribution of dairy cows to pollution at the farm level is given and the effect of different types of carbohydrate and protein supplementation discussed. The relationship between nitrogen intake and nitrogen balance was investigated using data from 580 dairy cows and 90 treatments published in the literature. Regression analysis described the relationships between nitrogen intake and output in faeces, urine and milk. Inefficient utilisation of nitrogen by dairy cows indicates that about 72% of consumed nitrogen is excreted in faeces and urine. There were positive linear relationships between nitrogen intake and output in faeces, urine and milk up to an intake of 400 g N/d. However, above 400 g N/d, excretion in urine increased exponentially while the rate of increase in nitrogen excretion in faeces and milk declined linearly. To reduce nitrogen pollution, it is recommended to decrease the amount of crude protein in the total diet to approximately 150 g/kg DM which compared with levels of 200 g/crude protein/kg DM consumption can reduce annual nitrogen excretion in faeces by 21% and more importantly in urine by 66%. Management practices with respect to silage making and the choice of supplements need to be considered with the aim of reducing total nitrogen in excreta and if possible shifting nitrogen excretion from urine to faeces.
E. Kebreab
The University of Reading, Centre for Dairy Research, Department of Agriculture, Earley Gate, P.O.Box 236, Reading RG6 6AT, United Kingdom
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109. Effect of Site and Source of Energy Supplementation on Milk Yield in Dairy Cows
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110. Relationships Among Manure Nitrogen Output and Dietary and Animal Factors in Lactating Dairy Cows
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111. Comparative Evaluation of Alternative Forages to Grass Silage in the Diet of Early Lactation Dairy Cows
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112. Effects of Cow Diet on the Microbial Community and Organic Matter and Nitrogen Content of Feces
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114. Effects of feeding unprocessed oilseeds on methane emission, nitrogen utilization efficiency and milk fatty acid profile of lactating dairy cows
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115. Prediction and Comparison of Nitrogen Excretions in Dairy and Beef Cattle
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118. Whole-farm nutrient balances are an important tool for California dairy farms
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Animal Feed Science and Technology
123. Origin, quantities and fate of nitrogen flows associated with animal production
L. Delaby, J.-Y. Dourmad, F. Béline, P. Lescoat, P. Faverdin, J.-L. Fiorelli, F. Vertès, P. Veysset, T. Morvan, V. Parnaudeau, P. Durand, P. Rochette, J.-L. Peyraud
Advances in Animal Biosciences
124. Pathways to improving the N efficiency of grazing bovines
N.J. Hoekstra, R.P.O. Schulte, P.C. Struik, E.A. Lantinga
European Journal of Agronomy
125. What is the digestibility and caloric value of different botanical parts in corn residue to cattle?1
Emily Petzel, Evan Titgemeyer, Alexander Smart, Kristin Hales, Andrew Foote, Subash Acharya, Eric Bailey, Jeffrey Held, Derek Brake
Journal of Animal Science
126. A review of plant options for mitigating nitrous oxide emissions from pasture-based systems
Klein de, der van, Jiafa Luo, Keith Cameron, Hong Di
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research
127. Effect of N fertilisation rate, energy supplementation and supplementation strategy on efficiency of N utilisation in the sheep rumen
Veerle Fievez, Ann Vandeweghe, B. Vlaeminck, L. Mbanzamihigo, L. Carlier, D. Demeyer
Archiv für Tierernaehrung
128. Nitrogen use efficiency: A potential performance indicator and policy tool for dairy farms
J.M. Powell, C.J.P. Gourley, C.A. Rotz, D.M. Weaver
Environmental Science & Policy
129. Nitrogen use efficiency and manure management practices in contrasting dairy production systems
Cameron Gourley, Sharon Aarons, J. Powell
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
130. Influence of diet and manure management on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from dairy barns
N. Edouard, A. Charpiot, P. Robin, E. Lorinquer, J.-B. Dollé, P. Faverdin
131. The Effect of Herbage Conservation Method on Protein Value and Nitrogen Utilization in Dairy Cows
Christian Böttger, Paolo Silacci, Frigga Dohme-Meier, Karl-Heinz Südekum, Ueli Wyss
132. Lupin-Pea-Cereal Mixture or Cereals as Supplements for Organic Dairy Cows
Margit Velik, Andreas Steinwidder, Wilhelm Knaus
Biological Agriculture & Horticulture
133. Environmental impacts of beef production: Review of challenges and perspectives for durability
Pierre Gerber, Anne Mottet, Carolyn Opio, Alessandra Falcucci, Félix Teillard
Meat Science
134. Effects of hydrolysable tannin-treated grass silage on milk yield and composition, nitrogen partitioning and nitrogen isotopic discrimination in lactating dairy cows
S. Herremans, V. Decruyenaere, G. Cantalapiedra-Hijar, Y. Beckers, E. Froidmont
135. Productivity and environmental implications of fodder beet and maize silage as supplements to pasture for late lactation dairy cows
Dawn Dalley, Deanne Waugh, Amelia Griffin, Caleb Higham, Ruiter de, Brendon Malcolm
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research
136. Nitrogen partitioning and isotopic discrimination are affected by age and dietary protein content in growing lambs
M. Bernard, L. Cheng, C. Chantelauze, Y. Song, A. Jeanleboeuf, L. Sagot, G. Cantalapiedra-Hijar
137. Effects of Feeding Protected Methionine And Lysine In Dairy Cattle On Rumen Microflora and Milk Yield And Composition
Kazım Bilgeçli, Aydan YILMAZ
Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology
138. Can alternative forages substantially reduce N leaching? findings from a review and associated modelling
Racheal Bryant, Val Snow, Paul Shorten, Brendon Welten
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research
139. Some challenges and opportunities for grazing dairy cows on temperate pastures
J. Wilkinson, Michael Lee, M. Rivero, A. Chamberlain
Grass and Forage Science
140. Effect of plantain on nitrous oxide emissions and soil nitrification rate in pasture soil under a simulated urine patch in Canterbury, New Zealand
Andriy Podolyan, Hong Di, Keith Cameron
Journal of Soils and Sediments
141. Substitution of leguminous forage for oat hay improves nitrogen utilization efficiency of crossbred Simmental calves
Wuchen Du, Fujiang Hou, Atsushi Tsunekawa, Nobuyuki Kobayashi, Fei Peng, Toshiyoshi Ichinohe
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
142. Season and Bedding Impacts on Ammonia Emissions from Tie-stall Dairy Barns
J. Powell, T. Misselbrook, M. Casler
Journal of Environmental Quality
143. Differential Nitrogen-15 Labeling of Dairy Manure Components for Nitrogen Cycling Studies
J. Powell, Zhiguo Wu, Keith Kelling, Paul Cusick, Gabriela Muñoz
Agronomy Journal
144. Dairy Manure Type, Application Rate, and Frequency Impact Plants and Soils
Zhonghong Wu, J. Powell
Soil Science Society of America Journal
145. Orchardgrass Ley for Improved Manure Management in Wisconsin: II. Nutritive Value and Voluntary Intake by Dairy Heifers
Janet Hedtcke, Joshua Posner, Wayne Coblentz, John Hall, Richard Walgenbach, Jill Davidson
Agronomy Journal
146. Dietary Crude Protein and Tannin Impact Dairy Manure Chemistry and Ammonia Emissions from Incubated Soils
J. Powell, M. Aguerre, M. Wattiaux
Journal of Environmental Quality
147. Regulation of Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Soils Irrigated with Dairy Farm Effluent
L. Barton, L. Schipper
Journal of Environmental Quality
148. Tannin Extracts Abate Ammonia Emissions from Simulated Dairy Barn Floors
J. Powell, M. Aguerre, M. Wattiaux
Journal of Environmental Quality
149. Effect of a late summer diet change from pasture to brassica crop and silages on dairy cow milk production and urinary nitrogen excretion
Nouman Kyamanywa, Isabel Tait, Courtney Mitchell, Mike Hedley, David Pacheco, Peter Bishop
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research
150. Corn supplementation on milk urea nitrogen content of dairy cows grazing on temperate annual pasture
Aline Dall-Orsoletta, João Almeida, Márcia Oziemblowski, Henrique Ribeiro-Filho
Ciência Rural
151. Potential of milk mid-infrared spectra to predict nitrogen use efficiency of individual dairy cows in early lactation
C. Grelet, E. Froidmont, L. Foldager, M. Salavati, M. Hostens, C.P. Ferris, K.L. Ingvartsen, M.A. Crowe, M.T. Sorensen, Pierna Fernandez, A. Vanlierde, N. Gengler, F. Dehareng
Journal of Dairy Science
152. Influence of energy supplementation on dietary nitrogen utilization and milk production in cows fed foliage of Leucaena leucocephala
Víctor Arjona-Alcocer, Carlos Aguilar-Pérez, Juan Ku-Vera, Luis Ramírez-Avilés, Francisco Solorio-Sánchez
Tropical Animal Health and Production
153. Nutrient Intake, Excretion and Use Efficiency of Grazing Lactating Herds on Commercial Dairy Farms
Sharon Aarons, Cameron Gourley, J. Powell
154. Prediction of nitrogen excretion in buffalo production systems using dietary and animal variables
Amlan Patra, Kaushik Pal, Melody Lalhriatpuii
Agricultural Systems
155. Comparison of milk production, intake, and total-tract nutrient digestion in lactating dairy cattle fed diets containing either wheat middlings and urea, commercial fermentation by-product, or rumen-protected soybean meal
S.W. Fessenden, D.A. Ross, E. Block, Amburgh Van
Journal of Dairy Science
156. Substituting a pasture-based diet with plantain (Plantago lanceolata) reduces nitrogen excreted in urine from dairy cows in late lactation.
E.M.K. Minnée, C.M.T. Leach, D.E. Dalley
Livestock Science
157. Milk Production, N Partitioning, and Methane Emissions in Dairy Cows Grazing Mixed or Spatially Separated Simple and Diverse Pastures
Lorena Carmona-Flores, Massimo Bionaz, Troy Downing, Muhammet Sahin, Long Cheng, Serkan Ates
158. Short communication: Genetic aspects of milk urea nitrogen and new indicators of nitrogen efficiency in dairy cows
T. Bobbo, M. Penasa, A. Rossoni, M. Cassandro
Journal of Dairy Science
159. The potential effectiveness of four different options to reduce environmental impacts of grazed pastures. A model-based assessment
Donna Giltrap, Miko Kirschbaum, Lìyǐn Liáng
Agricultural Systems
160. Nitrogen use efficiency on dairy farms with different grazing systems in northwestern Germany
Philipp Löw, Yusuf Karatay, Bernhard Osterburg
Environmental Research Communications
161. Ammonia Emissions from Differing Manure Storage Facilities at Two Midwestern Free-Stall Dairies
Richard Grant, Matthew Boehm
162. Performance and nutrient utilisation of dairy cows offered silages produced from three successive harvests of either a red clover–perennial ryegrass sward or a perennial ryegrass sward
D.J Johnston, A.S Laidlaw, K. Theodoridou, C.P. Ferris
Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research
163. Supplementation of urea to a basal pasture diet fed to dairy cows to model N-partitioning relationships
S.J. Hendriks, N. Lopez-Villalobos, A.J. Sheahan, D.J. Donaghy, J.R. Roche
JDS Communications
164. Agriculture and Air Quality
Pierre Cellier, Sophie Génermont, Antoine Pierart, Sophie Agasse, Jean-Louis Drouet, Nadège Edouard, Thomas Eglin, Laurence Galsomiès, Nadine Guingand, Benjamin Loubet, Isabelle Roussel