A review of efficiency of nitrogen utilisation in lactating dairy cows and its relationship with environmental pollution
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The University of Reading, Centre for Dairy Research, Department of Agriculture, Earley Gate, P.O.Box 236, Reading RG6 6AT, United Kingdom
Present address: EEA Rafaela INTA Casilla de correo 22, (2300) Rafaela, Santa Fe, Argentina
Publication date: 2000-01-13
Corresponding author
E. Kebreab
The University of Reading, Centre for Dairy Research, Department of Agriculture, Earley Gate, P.O.Box 236, Reading RG6 6AT, United Kingdom
J. Anim. Feed Sci. 2000;9(1):1-32
The objective of this paper is to review the literature concerning nitrogen utilisation in lactating dairy cows with an emphasis on their contribution to environmental pollution. Nitrogen, as oxides or ammonia, is one of the green houses gases contributing to air pollution and through leaching to rivers and ground water resources. A quantitative analysis of the contribution of dairy cows to pollution at the farm level is given and the effect of different types of carbohydrate and protein supplementation discussed. The relationship between nitrogen intake and nitrogen balance was investigated using data from 580 dairy cows and 90 treatments published in the literature. Regression analysis described the relationships between nitrogen intake and output in faeces, urine and milk. Inefficient utilisation of nitrogen by dairy cows indicates that about 72% of consumed nitrogen is excreted in faeces and urine. There were positive linear relationships between nitrogen intake and output in faeces, urine and milk up to an intake of 400 g N/d. However, above 400 g N/d, excretion in urine increased exponentially while the rate of increase in nitrogen excretion in faeces and milk declined linearly. To reduce nitrogen pollution, it is recommended to decrease the amount of crude protein in the total diet to approximately 150 g/kg DM which compared with levels of 200 g/crude protein/kg DM consumption can reduce annual nitrogen excretion in faeces by 21% and more importantly in urine by 66%. Management practices with respect to silage making and the choice of supplements need to be considered with the aim of reducing total nitrogen in excreta and if possible shifting nitrogen excretion from urine to faeces.
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Klein de, der van, Jiafa Luo, Keith Cameron, Hong Di
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research
Effect of N fertilisation rate, energy supplementation and supplementation strategy on efficiency of N utilisation in the sheep rumen
Veerle Fievez, Ann Vandeweghe, B. Vlaeminck, L. Mbanzamihigo, L. Carlier, D. Demeyer
Archiv für Tierernaehrung
Nitrogen use efficiency: A potential performance indicator and policy tool for dairy farms
J.M. Powell, C.J.P. Gourley, C.A. Rotz, D.M. Weaver
Environmental Science & Policy
Nitrogen use efficiency and manure management practices in contrasting dairy production systems
Cameron Gourley, Sharon Aarons, J. Powell
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
Influence of diet and manure management on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from dairy barns
N. Edouard, A. Charpiot, P. Robin, E. Lorinquer, J.-B. Dollé, P. Faverdin
The Effect of Herbage Conservation Method on Protein Value and Nitrogen Utilization in Dairy Cows
Christian Böttger, Paolo Silacci, Frigga Dohme-Meier, Karl-Heinz Südekum, Ueli Wyss
Lupin-Pea-Cereal Mixture or Cereals as Supplements for Organic Dairy Cows
Margit Velik, Andreas Steinwidder, Wilhelm Knaus
Biological Agriculture & Horticulture
Environmental impacts of beef production: Review of challenges and perspectives for durability
Pierre Gerber, Anne Mottet, Carolyn Opio, Alessandra Falcucci, Félix Teillard
Meat Science
Effects of hydrolysable tannin-treated grass silage on milk yield and composition, nitrogen partitioning and nitrogen isotopic discrimination in lactating dairy cows
S. Herremans, V. Decruyenaere, G. Cantalapiedra-Hijar, Y. Beckers, E. Froidmont
Productivity and environmental implications of fodder beet and maize silage as supplements to pasture for late lactation dairy cows
Dawn Dalley, Deanne Waugh, Amelia Griffin, Caleb Higham, Ruiter de, Brendon Malcolm
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research
Nitrogen partitioning and isotopic discrimination are affected by age and dietary protein content in growing lambs
M. Bernard, L. Cheng, C. Chantelauze, Y. Song, A. Jeanleboeuf, L. Sagot, G. Cantalapiedra-Hijar
Effects of Feeding Protected Methionine And Lysine In Dairy Cattle On Rumen Microflora and Milk Yield And Composition
Kazım Bilgeçli, Aydan YILMAZ
Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology
Can alternative forages substantially reduce N leaching? findings from a review and associated modelling
Racheal Bryant, Val Snow, Paul Shorten, Brendon Welten
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research
Some challenges and opportunities for grazing dairy cows on temperate pastures
J. Wilkinson, Michael Lee, M. Rivero, A. Chamberlain
Grass and Forage Science
Effect of plantain on nitrous oxide emissions and soil nitrification rate in pasture soil under a simulated urine patch in Canterbury, New Zealand
Andriy Podolyan, Hong Di, Keith Cameron
Journal of Soils and Sediments
Substitution of leguminous forage for oat hay improves nitrogen utilization efficiency of crossbred Simmental calves
Wuchen Du, Fujiang Hou, Atsushi Tsunekawa, Nobuyuki Kobayashi, Fei Peng, Toshiyoshi Ichinohe
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Season and Bedding Impacts on Ammonia Emissions from Tie-stall Dairy Barns
J. Powell, T. Misselbrook, M. Casler
Journal of Environmental Quality
Differential Nitrogen-15 Labeling of Dairy Manure Components for Nitrogen Cycling Studies
J. Powell, Zhiguo Wu, Keith Kelling, Paul Cusick, Gabriela Muñoz
Agronomy Journal
Dairy Manure Type, Application Rate, and Frequency Impact Plants and Soils
Zhonghong Wu, J. Powell
Soil Science Society of America Journal
Orchardgrass Ley for Improved Manure Management in Wisconsin: II. Nutritive Value and Voluntary Intake by Dairy Heifers
Janet Hedtcke, Joshua Posner, Wayne Coblentz, John Hall, Richard Walgenbach, Jill Davidson
Agronomy Journal
Dietary Crude Protein and Tannin Impact Dairy Manure Chemistry and Ammonia Emissions from Incubated Soils
J. Powell, M. Aguerre, M. Wattiaux
Journal of Environmental Quality
Regulation of Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Soils Irrigated with Dairy Farm Effluent
L. Barton, L. Schipper
Journal of Environmental Quality
Tannin Extracts Abate Ammonia Emissions from Simulated Dairy Barn Floors
J. Powell, M. Aguerre, M. Wattiaux
Journal of Environmental Quality
Effect of a late summer diet change from pasture to brassica crop and silages on dairy cow milk production and urinary nitrogen excretion
Nouman Kyamanywa, Isabel Tait, Courtney Mitchell, Mike Hedley, David Pacheco, Peter Bishop
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research
Corn supplementation on milk urea nitrogen content of dairy cows grazing on temperate annual pasture
Aline Dall-Orsoletta, João Almeida, Márcia Oziemblowski, Henrique Ribeiro-Filho
Ciência Rural
Potential of milk mid-infrared spectra to predict nitrogen use efficiency of individual dairy cows in early lactation
C. Grelet, E. Froidmont, L. Foldager, M. Salavati, M. Hostens, C.P. Ferris, K.L. Ingvartsen, M.A. Crowe, M.T. Sorensen, Pierna Fernandez, A. Vanlierde, N. Gengler, F. Dehareng
Journal of Dairy Science
Influence of energy supplementation on dietary nitrogen utilization and milk production in cows fed foliage of Leucaena leucocephala
Víctor Arjona-Alcocer, Carlos Aguilar-Pérez, Juan Ku-Vera, Luis Ramírez-Avilés, Francisco Solorio-Sánchez
Tropical Animal Health and Production
Nutrient Intake, Excretion and Use Efficiency of Grazing Lactating Herds on Commercial Dairy Farms
Sharon Aarons, Cameron Gourley, J. Powell
Prediction of nitrogen excretion in buffalo production systems using dietary and animal variables
Amlan Patra, Kaushik Pal, Melody Lalhriatpuii
Agricultural Systems
Comparison of milk production, intake, and total-tract nutrient digestion in lactating dairy cattle fed diets containing either wheat middlings and urea, commercial fermentation by-product, or rumen-protected soybean meal
S.W. Fessenden, D.A. Ross, E. Block, Amburgh Van
Journal of Dairy Science
Substituting a pasture-based diet with plantain (Plantago lanceolata) reduces nitrogen excreted in urine from dairy cows in late lactation.
E.M.K. Minnée, C.M.T. Leach, D.E. Dalley
Livestock Science
Milk Production, N Partitioning, and Methane Emissions in Dairy Cows Grazing Mixed or Spatially Separated Simple and Diverse Pastures
Lorena Carmona-Flores, Massimo Bionaz, Troy Downing, Muhammet Sahin, Long Cheng, Serkan Ates
Short communication: Genetic aspects of milk urea nitrogen and new indicators of nitrogen efficiency in dairy cows
T. Bobbo, M. Penasa, A. Rossoni, M. Cassandro
Journal of Dairy Science
The potential effectiveness of four different options to reduce environmental impacts of grazed pastures. A model-based assessment
Donna Giltrap, Miko Kirschbaum, Lìyǐn Liáng
Agricultural Systems
Nitrogen use efficiency on dairy farms with different grazing systems in northwestern Germany
Philipp Löw, Yusuf Karatay, Bernhard Osterburg
Environmental Research Communications
Ammonia Emissions from Differing Manure Storage Facilities at Two Midwestern Free-Stall Dairies
Richard Grant, Matthew Boehm
Performance and nutrient utilisation of dairy cows offered silages produced from three successive harvests of either a red clover–perennial ryegrass sward or a perennial ryegrass sward
D.J Johnston, A.S Laidlaw, K. Theodoridou, C.P. Ferris
Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research
Supplementation of urea to a basal pasture diet fed to dairy cows to model N-partitioning relationships
S.J. Hendriks, N. Lopez-Villalobos, A.J. Sheahan, D.J. Donaghy, J.R. Roche
JDS Communications
Agriculture and Air Quality
Pierre Cellier, Sophie Génermont, Antoine Pierart, Sophie Agasse, Jean-Louis Drouet, Nadège Edouard, Thomas Eglin, Laurence Galsomiès, Nadine Guingand, Benjamin Loubet, Isabelle Roussel
Assessing feed efficiency in early and mid-lactation and its associations with performance and health in Holstein cows
Marinho Nehme, R. Zimpel, F. Peñagaricano, J.E.P. Santos
Journal of Dairy Science
Can Nitrogen Excretion of Dairy Cows Be Reduced by Genetic Selection for Low Milk Urea Nitrogen Concentration?
Hewa Ariyarathne, Martin Correa-Luna, Hugh Blair, Dorian Garrick, Nicolas Lopez-Villalobos
Animal Harms and Food Production: Informing Ethical Choices
Jordan Hampton, Timothy Hyndman, Benjamin Allen, Bob Fischer
Holstein dairy cows with high phosphorus utilization efficiency fed a low phosphorous diet secreted less phosphorus with urine but more with milk and feces
Carolin Müller, Björn Kuhla
Science of The Total Environment
Diet supplementation with canola meal improves milk production, reduces enteric methane emissions, and shifts nitrogen excretion from urine to feces in dairy cows
C. Benchaar, F. Hassanat, K.A. Beauchemin, G. Gislon, D.R. Ouellet
Journal of Dairy Science
Amino Acids Supplementation for the Milk and Milk Protein Production of Dairy Cows
Jung-Eun Kim, Hong-Gu Lee
Estimation of Nitrogen Use Efficiency for Ryegrass-Fed Dairy Cows: Model Development Using Diet- and Animal-Based Proxy Measures
Wumaierjiang Aizimu, Omar Al-Marashdeh, Simon Hodge, Richard Dewhurst, Ao Chen, Guangyong Zhao, Saranika Talukder, Grant Edwards, Long Cheng
Evaluation of nitrogen excretion equations for ryegrass pasture-fed dairy cows
C. Christodoulou, J.M. Moorby, E. Tsiplakou, D. Kantas, A. Foskolos
The effect of post-harvest treatment of field beans on dairy cow performance and nutrient utilisation
D.J. Johnston, K. Theodoridou, S. Stewart, C.P. Ferris
Livestock Science
Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Excretion in Grazing Cows with High and Low Milk Urea Nitrogen Breeding Values
Martín Correa-Luna, Daniel Donaghy, Peter Kemp, Michael Schutz, Nicolás López-Villalobos
CowNflow: A dataset on nitrogen flows and balances in dairy cows fed maize forage or herbage-based diets
Manon Ferreira, Rémy Delagarde, Nadège Edouard
Data in Brief
Animal as the Solution: Searching for Environmentally Friendly Dairy Cows
Cameron Marshall, Pablo Gregorini
In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of the Effects of a Compound Based on Plants, Yeast and Trace Elements on the Ruminal Function of Dairy Cows
Francoise Lessire, Sandra Point, Knoerr Laza, Isabelle Dufrasne
Spot urine collection: A valid alternative to total urine collection for metabolomic studies in dairy cattle
H. Boudra, P. Noziere, G. Cantalapiedra-Hijar, M. Traikia, J-F. Martin, M. Petera, M. Lagree, M. Doreau, D.P. Morgavi
Journal of Dairy Science
Emerging Issues in Climate Smart Livestock Production
M. Devasena, V. Sangeetha
Effects of water saving and nitrogen reduction on the yield, quality, water and nitrogen use efficiency of Isatis indigotica in Hexi Oasis
Xiucheng He, Huizhen Qiu, Kuizhong Xie, Yucai Wang, Juan Hu, Fuqiang Li, Jing An
Scientific Reports
Élevages et environnement
Isabelle Bouvarel, Jean-Yves Dourmad, Armelle Gac
Constraints on the utilization of cereal straw in lactating dairy cows: A review from the perspective of systems biology
Bing Wang, Huizeng Sun, Diming Wang, Hongyun Liu, Jianxin Liu
Animal Nutrition
Effects of increased doses of lysine in a rumen-protected form on plasma amino acid concentration and lactational performance of dairy cows fed a lysine-deficient diet
V.M.R. Malacco, L. Beckett, S. Hilger, P. Doane, R.B. Reis, S.S. Donkin
Journal of Dairy Science
Cell signalling compound improves pasture and livestock productivity and the environment
Usha Amaranathan, Nathan Balasingham
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems
Nitrogen Excretion by Dairy Cows Grazing Plantain (Plantago lanceolata) Based Pastures during the Lactating Season
Soledad Navarrete, María Rodriguez, David Horne, James Hanly, Mike Hedley, Peter Kemp
Replacement of soybean meal with alternative protein sources in the concentrate supplement for lactating Holstein × Gyr cows in an intensive tropical pasture-based system: effects on performance, milk composition, and diurnal ingestive behavior
Ciro Bittencourt, Renato Júnior, Erick Silva, Jonathan Meneguette, Bruno Schuh, Veri Daley, Sergio Fernandes, Ricardo Signoretti, José Freitas
Livestock Science
Effect of Supplementing Grass Silage-Based Diets with Concentrate Carbohydrate Sources with Different Fermentation Profiles on N Metabolism of Beef Heifers Fed to Maintenance
Stuart Kirwan, Karina Pierce, Eleonora Serra, Vivian Gath, Gaurav Rajauria, Tommy Boland
Nitrogen isotopic discrimination as a biomarker of between-cow variation in the efficiency of nitrogen utilization for milk production: A meta-analysis
M. Correa-Luna, M. Johansen, P. Noziere, C. Chantelauze, S.M. Nasrollahi, P. Lund, M. Larsen, A.R. Bayat, L.A. Crompton, C.K. Reynolds, E. Froidmont, N. Edouard, R. Dewhurst, L. Bahloul, C. Martin, G. Cantalapiedra-Hijar
Journal of Dairy Science
Effect of dietary protein level on nitrogen excretion in dry cows
P.A. Madsen, P. Lund, D.N. Brask-Pedersen, M. Johansen
Livestock Science
Effects of dietary crude protein concentration on animal performance and nitrogen utilisation efficiency at different stages of lactation in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows
C.T. Yang, C.P. Ferris, T. Yan
Prediction of nitrogen excretion from data on dairy cows fed a wide range of diets compiled in an intercontinental database: A meta-analysis
A. Bougouin, A. Hristov, J. Dijkstra, M.J. Aguerre, S. Ahvenjärvi, C. Arndt, A. Bannink, A.R. Bayat, C. Benchaar, T. Boland, W.E. Brown, L.A. Crompton, F. Dehareng, I. Dufrasne, M. Eugène, E. Froidmont, Gastelen van, P.C. Garnsworthy, A. Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, S. Herremans, P. Huhtanen, M. Johansen, A. Kidane, M. Kreuzer, B. Kuhla, F. Lessire, P. Lund, E.M.K. Minnée, C. Muñoz, M. Niu, P. Nozière, D. Pacheco, E. Prestløkken, C.K. Reynolds, A. Schwarm, J.W. Spek, M. Terranova, A. Vanhatalo, M.A. Wattiaux, M.R. Weisbjerg, D.R. Yáñez-Ruiz, Z. Yu, E. Kebreab
Journal of Dairy Science
Effects of early herbage cutting and vine leaves on methane emission, urine N losses, and the milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows
A. Birkinshaw, M. Kreuzer, M. Sutter, B. Reidy, M. Terranova
Journal of Dairy Science
Ruminal background of predisposed milk urea (MU) concentration in Holsteins
Hanne Honerlagen, Henry Reyer, Dierck Segelke, Carolin Müller, Marie Prahl, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Nares Trakooljul, Norbert Reinsch, Björn Kuhla, Klaus Wimmers
Frontiers in Microbiology
Nitrogen excretion from beef cattle fed a wide range of diets compiled in an intercontinental dataset: a meta-analysis
Adeline Bougouin, Alexander Hristov, Diego Zanetti, Sebastiao Filho, Lucianna Rennó, Ana Menezes, Jarbas Silva, Herlon Alhadas, Lays Mariz, Laura Prados, Karen Beauchemin, Tim McAllister, WenZhu Yang, Karen Koenig, Karen Goossens, Tianhai Yan, Pierre Noziere, Arjan Jonker, Ermias Kebreab
Journal of Animal Science
Biorefined press cake silage as feed source for dairy cows: effect on milk production and composition, rumen fermentation, nitrogen and phosphorus excretion and in vitro methane production
E. Serra, M.B. Lynch, J. Gaffey, J.P.M. Sanders, S. Koopmans, M. Markiewicz-Keszycka, M.H. Bock, Z.C. McKay, K.M. Pierce
Livestock Science
Creating a Design Framework to Diagnose and Enhance Grassland Health under Pastoral Livestock Production Systems
Fabiellen Pereira, Carol Smith, Stuart Charters, Pablo Gregorini
Estimation of genetic parameters and single-step genome-wide association studies for milk urea nitrogen in Holstein cattle
Longgang Ma, Hanpeng Luo, Luiz Brito, Yao Chang, Ziwei Chen, Wenqi Lou, Fan Zhang, Lei Wang, Gang Guo, Yachun Wang
Journal of Dairy Science
Evaluation of Urine Nitrogen Excretion as the Measure of the Environmental Load and the Efficiency of Nitrogen Utilization
I. Maskaľová, V. Vajda, Lacková Timkovičová
Folia Veterinaria
Supplementation of exogenous β-mannanase to low-protein diets improves feed conversion efficiency in lactating dairy cows
E. Kebreab, J. Mendez, P. Ji, J.-J. Lee, S. Seo, Joe Jacobs
Animal Production Science
Greenhouse gas balances and yield-scaled emissions for storage and field application of organic fertilizers derived from cattle manure
Xiaoyi Meng, Peter Sørensen, Henrik Møller, Søren Petersen
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
Combining field and laboratory approaches to quantify N assimilation in a soil microbe-plant-animal grazing land system
Michaela Reay, Karina Marsden, Sarah Powell, David Chadwick, Davey Jones, Richard Evershed
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
Machado Pinheiro, Agudelo Bran, Pereira Cristina, Bica Schenato, Adenor Wendling, Kazama Silva, Shirley Kuhnen
Revista Brasileira de Agroecologia
Feeding cows with agroecologically diets: intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation and N-utilisation
Jefferson Gandra, Rafael Goes, Douglas Anschau, Erika Gandra, Cibeli Pedrini, Fabio Machado, Nayara Silva
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research
Effect of low dietary concentrations of Acacia mearnsii tannin extract on chewing, ruminal fermentation, digestibility, nitrogen partition, and performance of dairy cows
Liniker Oliveira, Marina Pereira, Cecília Oliveira, Cássia Oliveira, Rayana Silva, Renata Pereira, Trevor DeVries, Marcos Pereira
Journal of Dairy Science
The effect of a zero-grazed perennial ryegrass, perennial ryegrass and white clover, or multispecies forage on the dry matter intake, milk production and nitrogen utilization of dairy cows in mid-late lactation
K.M. McCarthy, N. Walsh, Wylick van, M. McDonald, A.G. Fahey, M.B. Lynch, K.M. Pierce, T.M. Boland, H. Sheridan, M. Markiewicz-Keszycka, F.J. Mulligan
Livestock Science
Environmental and Economic Responses to Precision Feed Management in Dairy Cattle Diets
Larry Chase, Riccardo Fortina
Effects of Amount and Profile of Amino Acids Supply on Lactation Performance, Mammary Gland Metabolism, and Nitrogen Efficiency in Holstein Dairy Cows
Marina Danes, Eduardo Paula, Claudia Parys, Gleiciele Souza, João Rezende, Glen Broderick, Michel Wattiaux
Effectiveness of precision feeding in reducing N excretion in dairy cattle
Lluis Morey, Alex Bach, Daniel Sabrià, Victor Riau, Belén Fernández, Marta Terré
Animal Feed Science and Technology
Bacterial community structure in the rumen and hindgut is associated with nitrogen efficiency in Holstein cows
La De, H. Paz
Scientific Reports
Enteric and manure emissions from Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle fed grass silage-based or corn silage-based diets
Gastelen van, van Jan, André Bannink
Journal of Dairy Science
Autumn grass treated with a hydrolysable tannin extract versus lactic acid bacteria inoculant: Effects on silage fermentation characteristics and nutritional value and on performance of lactating dairy cows
den Van, Karen Goossens, Geert Haesaert, Eva Wambacq, Leen Vandaele, Boever De
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Cow-level factors associated with nitrogen utilization in grazing dairy cows using a cross-sectional analysis of a large database.
E. Tavernier, I.C. Gormley, L. Delaby, S. McParland, M. O'Donovan, D.P. Berry
Journal of Dairy Science
Nitrogen balance in dairy cows fed low-nitrogen diets based on various proportions of fresh grass and maize silage
M. Ferreira, R. Delagarde, N. Edouard
Nitrogen efficiency in cows fed red clover- or alfalfa-silage-based diets differing in rumen-degradable protein supply
M. Leduc, R. Gervais, P.Y. Chouinard
Animal - Open Space
Impact of adding tannins or medium-chain fatty acids in a dairy cow diet on variables of in vitro fermentation using a rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC) system
Analía Pérez-Ruchel, Alejandro Britos, Amayri Alvarado, Sofía Fernández-Ciganda, Frederik Gadeyne, Mariana Bustos, Pablo Zunino, Cecilia Cajarville
Animal Feed Science and Technology
Shoot nitrogen concentrations required for optimal herbage growth of multiple perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars relative to modern summer‐active cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) cultivars
Adam Langworthy, Ross Corkrey, Richard Rawnsley, James Hills
Grass and Forage Science
Longitudinal characterization of the metabolome of dairy cows transitioning from one lactation to the next one: Investigations in blood serum
M.H. Ghaffari, J.B. Daniel, H. Sadri, S. Schuchardt, J. Martín-Tereso, H. Sauerwein
Journal of Dairy Science
Predicting fiber digestibility in Holstein dairy cows fed dry-hay based rations through machine learning
D. Cavallini, E. Raffrenato, L.M.E. Mammi, A. Palmonari, G. Canestrari, A. Costa, G. Visentin, A. Formigoni
Relationships between dietary factors and nitrogen partitioning to milk and urine in temperate grazing dairy cattle
David Pacheco, Chris Glassey, Charissa Thomas, Stewart Ledgard, Lisa Box, Brendon Welten, Paul Shorten
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research
Use of reclaimed urban wastewater for the production of hydroponic barley forage: water characteristics, feed quality and effects on health status and production of lactating cows
Luigi Ceci, Maria Cavalera, Francesco Serrapica, Francia Di, Felicia Masucci, Grazia Carelli
Frontiers in Veterinary Science
The effects of raw and steam-pressure toasted faba bean seeds on the production performance in high-lactating dairy cows
María Espinosa, Víctor Oquendo, David Christensen, Peiqiang Yu
Canadian Journal of Animal Science
Variation in individual milk production responses to supplementary protein feeding with two types of forages
A. Sairanen, P. Huhtanen
Livestock Science
Effect of physically effective fibre on chewing behaviour, ruminal fermentation, digesta passage and protein metabolism of dairy cows
R. Heering, R. Baumont, N. Selje-Aßmann, U. Dickhoefer
The Journal of Agricultural Science
Condensed tannins fed to dairy goats: effects on digestibility, milk production, blood parameters, methane emission, and energy and nitrogen balances
M. Battelli, S. Colombini, G.M. Crovetto, G. Galassi, F. Abeni, F. Petrera, M.T. Manfredi, L. Rapetti
Journal of Dairy Science
Implementing plantain (Plantago lanceolata) to mitigate the impact of grazing ruminants on nitrogen losses to the environment: A review
J. B. Pinxterhuis, H. G. Judson, M. E. Peterson, S. Navarrete, E. Minnée, M. B. Dodd, S. R. Davis
Grass and Forage Science
Effect of supplementing an α-amylase enzyme or a blend of essential oil components on the performance, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance of dairy cows
T. Van den Bossche, K. Goossens, B. Ampe, L.F.M. Tamassia, J.L. De Boever, L. Vandaele
Journal of Dairy Science
Multi-tissue gene expression profiling of cows with a genetic predisposition for low and high milk urea levels
Henry Reyer, Hanne Honerlagen, Michael Oster, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Björn Kuhla, Klaus Wimmers
Animal Biotechnology
Effects of heating soybeans on postruminal amino acid bioavailability, performance, and ruminal fermentation in lactating cows
Emily A Petzel, Subash Acharya, Evan C Titgemeyer, Eric A Bailey, Derek W Brake
Journal of Animal Science
Effects of replacing corn silage and soybean meal with an increasing percentage of fresh herbage on dairy cow nitrogen use efficiency and flows
Manon Ferreira, Rémy Delagarde, Nadège Edouard
Animal Science Journal
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