Genetic parameters of milk fat-to-protein ratio in first three lactations of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows
More details
Hide details
University of Agriculture in Krakow, Faculty of Animal Science, Department of Genetics and Animal Breeding, al. Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Krakow, Poland
A. Satoła   

University of Agriculture in Krakow, Faculty of Animal Science, Department of Genetics and Animal Breeding, al. Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Krakow, Poland
Publication date: 2019-04-12
J. Anim. Feed Sci. 2019;28(2):97–109
The aim of the study was to estimate the genetic parameters of milk fat-to-protein ratio in the first three lactations of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. Data included 104 875 test-day records of 6299 cows calving from years 2000–2012. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait random regression model using the Bayesian method via Gibbs sampling. The linear model for fat-to-protein ratio and milk traits (milk yield, lactose percentage, milk urea concentration) included fixed herd-test-day effect, fixed regressions within age at calving by season of calving subclasses, and random regressions for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. All regressions were modelled using fourth-order Legendre polynomials. The average daily heritability of fat-to-protein ratio ranged from 0.24 to 0.31. Fat-to-protein ratio was negatively genetically correlated with milk yield for almost every day in milk in each lactation, with means of −0.52, −0.24 and −0.05 in the first, second and third lactations, respectively. Average genetic correlations of fat-to-protein ratio with lactose percentage and milk urea concentration were rather low or close to zero (−0.08 to 0.10) except for the genetic correlation with milk urea content in the second lactation (0.32). The results suggest that fat-to-protein ratio is a heritable trait and might be used in the selection of Polish Holstein-Friesians assuming that the relationship between fat-to-protein ratio and economically important traits will be investigated.
Battagin M., Sartori C., Biffani S., Penasa M., Cassandro M., 2013. Genetic parameters for body condition score, locomotion, angularity, and production traits in Italian Holstein cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 96, 5344–5351, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Buaban S., Duangjinda M., Suzuki M., Masuda Y., Sanpote J., Kuchida K., 2016. Genetic relationships of fertility traits with test-day milk yield and fat-to-protein ratio in tropical smallholder dairy farms. Anim. Sci. J. 87, 627–637, https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12....
Buttchereit N., Stamer E., Junge W., Thaller G., 2010. Evaluation of five lactation curve models fitted for fat:protein ratio of milk and daily energy balance. J. Dairy Sci. 93, 1702–1712, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Butler W.R., Smith R.D., 1989. Interrelationships between energy balance and postpartum reproductive function in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 72, 767–783, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
Buttchereit N., Stamer E., Junge W., Thaller G., 2011. Short communication: Genetic relationships among daily energy balance, feed intake, body condition score, and fat to protein ratio of milk in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 94, 1586–1591, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Collard B.L., Boettcher P.J., Dekkers J.C.M., Petitclerc D., Schaeffer L.R., 2000. Relationships between energy balance and health traits of dairy cattle in early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 83, 2683–2690, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
de Vries M.J., Veerkamp R.F., 2000. Energy balance of dairy cattle in relation to milk production variables and fertility. J. Dairy Sci. 83, 62–69, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
Enemark J.M.D., 2008. The monitoring, prevention and treatment of sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA): A review. Vet. J. 176, 32–43, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl....
Falconer D.S., 1989. Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. 3rd Edition. Longman Scientific & Technical. London (UK).
Friggens N.C., Ridder C., Løvendahl P., 2007. On the use of milk composition measures to predict the energy balance of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 90, 5453–5467, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Geishauser T., Leslie K., Tenhag K., Bashiri A., 2000. Evaluation of eight cow-side ketone tests in milk for detection of subclinical ketosis in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 83, 296–299, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
Goff J.P., Horst R.L., 1997. Physiological changes at parturition and their relationship to metabolic disorders. J. Dairy Sci. 80, 1260–1268, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
Grieve D.G., Korver S., Rijpkema Y.S., Hof G., 1986. Relationship between milk composition and some nutritional parameters in early lactation. Livest. Prod. Sci. 14, 239–254, https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-6....
Heuer C., Schukken Y.H., Dobbelaar P., 1999. Postpartum body condition score and results from the first test day milk as predictors of disease, fertility, yield, and culling in commercial dairy herds. J. Dairy Sci. 82, 295–304, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
Jamrozik J., Schaeffer L.R., 1997. Estimates of genetic parameters for a test day model with random regressions for yield traits of first lactation Holsteins. J. Dairy Sci. 80, 762–770, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
Jamrozik J., Schaeffer L.R., 2012. Test-day somatic cell score, fat-to-protein ratio and milk yield as indicator traits for sub-clinical mastitis in dairy cattle. J. Anim. Breed. Genet. 129, 11–19, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439....
Kirkpatrick M., Hill W.G., Thompson R., 1994. Estimating the covariance structure of traits during growth and ageing, illustrated with lactation in dairy cattle. Genet. Res. 64, 57–69, https://doi.org/10.1017/S00166....
Koeck A., Miglior F., Jamrozik J., Kelton D.F., Schenkel F.S., 2013. Genetic associations of ketosis and displaced abomasum with milk production traits in early lactation of Canadian Holsteins. J. Dairy Sci. 96, 4688–4696, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Kowalski Z.M., Plyta A., Rybicka E., Jagusiak W., Sloniewski K., 2015. Novel model of monitoring of subclinical ketosis in dairy herds in Poland based on monthly milk recording and estimation of ketone bodies in milk by FTIR spectroscopy. ICAR Techn. Ser. 19, 25–30.
Loker S., Bastin C., Miglior F., Sewalem A., Schaeffer L.R., Jamrozik J., Ali A., Osbornell V., 2012. Genetic and environmental relationship between body condition score and milk production traits in Canadian Holsteins. J. Dairy Sci. 95, 410–419, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
McArt J.A.A., Nydam D.V., Oetzel G.R., 2012. Epidemiology of subclinical ketosis in early lactation dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 95, 5056–5066, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Misztal I., 2008. Reliable computing in estimation of variance components. J. Anim. Breed. Genet. 125, 363–370, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439....
Negussie E., Strandén I., Mäntysaari E.A., 2013. Genetic associations of test-day fat:protein ratio with milk yield, fertility, and udder health traits in Nordic Red cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 96, 1237–1250, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Nishiura A., Sasaki O., Aihara M., Takeda H., Satoh M., 2015. Genetic analysis of fat-to-protein ratio, milk yield and somatic cell score of Holstein cows in Japan in the first three lactations by using a random regression model. Anim. Sci. J. 86, 961–969, https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12....
Oltenacu P.A., Broom D.M., 2010. The impact of genetic selection for increased milk yield on the welfare of dairy cows. Anim. Welfare 19, Suppl. 1, 39–49.
Pena J., 2006. Genetic correlated traits for female fertility evaluation in Spanish Holstein. Interbull Bull. 34, 31–33.
Piechowska T., 2015. Current state and future prospects of dairy cattle breeding in Poland (in Polish: Stan obecny i perspektywy hodowli bydła mlecznego w Polsce). Wiad. Zootechn. 53, 3, 36–45.
Puangdee S., Duangjinda M., Boonkum W., Katawatin S., Buaban S., Thepparat M., 2017. Genetic associations between milk fat-to-protein ratio, milk production and fertility in the first two lactations of Thai Holsteins dairy cattle. Anim. Sci. J. 88, 723–730, https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12....
Reist M., Erdin D., von Euw D. et al., 2002. Estimation of energy balance at the individual and herd level using blood and milk traits in high-yielding dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 85, 3314–3327, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
Spurlock D.M., Dekkers J.C.M., Fernando R., Koltes D.A., Wolc A., 2012. Genetic parameters for energy balance, feed efficiency, and related traits in Holstein cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 95, 5393–5402, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Toni F., Vincenti L., Grigoletto L., Ricci A., Schukkent Y.H., 2011. Early lactation ratio of fat and protein percentage in milk is associated with health, milk production, and survival. J. Dairy Sci. 94, 1772–1783, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
Zwald N.R., Weigel K.A., Chang Y.M., Welper R.D., Clay J.S., 2004. Genetic selection for health traits using producer-recorded data. II. Genetic correlations, disease probabilities, and relationships with existing traits. J. Dairy Sci. 87, 4295–4302, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0....
Yu. Polupan, Yu. Melnik, О. Biriukova
Animal Breeding and Genetics
Ketone bodies – causes and effects of their increased presence in cows' body fluids: A review
Piotr Guliński
Veterinary World
Milkability differences based on lactation peak and parity in Holstein cattle
M. Vrhel, J. Ducháček, M. Gašparík, M. Vacek, R. Codl, J. Pytlík
Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences
Revisiting the Relationships between Fat-to-Protein Ratio in Milk and Energy Balance in Dairy Cows of Different Parities, and at Different Stages of Lactation
Edward Cabezas-Garcia, Alan Gordon, Finbar Mulligan, Conrad Ferris